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Flashcards in Personality Deck (108):
1

In order for one's "general style of dealing with others and the environment" to be considered their "personality," what must it be?

 
 

enduring

 
 

2

What are the four broad theories of personality?

 

  1. psychoanalytic
  2. humanistic
  3. social-cognitive
  4. trait theories 
 

3

Who is credited as being the "leader" of the psychoanalytic school of thought? 

 

Sigmund Freud

 

4

What is psychodynamic theory? 

 
 
 

a psychological approach based on a marriage of Freudian concepts (i.e. the subconscious) with more modern ideas

 
 
 

5

According to Freud, what two parts could the mind be divided into?

 

  1. the conscious
  2. the subconscious
 

6

Freud referred to life energy as __________.

 
 

libido

 
 

7

Although Freud contended that the subconscious plays a major role in behavior, its contents are not accessible. They become accessible through __________ or  revealing the __________ of dreams. 

 
 

freudian slips; latent content

 
 

8

This level, just below the level of conscious awareness, contains thoughts, memories, feelings, and images that are easily recalled.

 

 
 
 

preconscious

 
 
 

9

According to Freud, what two factors lie within the subconscious? 

 
 

  1. motivations
  2. source of one's problems
 
 

10

What is free association?

 
 

the patient reports whatever comes to mind, while the therapist analyzes the responses and looks for themes that may reveal the subconscious

 
 

11

Freud believed in dream analysis; he composed a list of __________, items or events that appeared in dreams but in reality represent other items or events in the subconscious. 

 
 

Freudian symbols 

 
 

12

What three distinct components comprise the mind, according to Freud?

 

  1. id
  2. ego
  3. superego
 

13

Name two things that the id is the 'source' of?

 

  1. mental energy 
  2. drive 
 

14

On which principle does the id operate? 

 

the pleasure principle

 

15

The pleasure principle is the desire to __________ while __________. 

 
 

maximize pleasure; minimizing pain 

 
 

16

The superego, the acknowledged opposite of the __________, is an internal representation of society's rules, morals, and obligations.

 
 

id 

 
 

17

Name two things that the ego allows us to accomplish in everyday life? 

 
 
 

  1. functioning in the environment
  2. acting logically
 
 
 

18

On which principle does the ego operate?

 

the reality principle

 
 
 

19

What is the reality principle?

 

the set of desires that can be satisfied only if the means to satisfy them exists and is available

 

20

What kind of thought is the ego most involved in?

 

conscious thought

 

21

What two things does the ego attempt to balance? 

 

  1. the interaction with the environment 
  2. the opposing forces of the id and superego
 

22

According to Freud, we use defense mechanisms to deal with what? 

 
 
 
 

 anxiety produced by the id-superego conflict

 
 
 
 

23

Repression, a type of defense mechanism, describes the process by which anxiety-provoking memories or desires are moved to the __________.

 
 

subconscious

 
 

24

If, after an argument, a child shows anger not towards his friend, with whom he is angry, but to a stuffed animal, what defense mechanism is he exhibiting?

 
 

displacement

 
 

25

In __________, the ego completely reverses a desire to make it safer or more socially acceptable. 

 
 

reaction formation

 
 

26

If I make up for a failure to understand math by excelling in crical reading, what defense mechanism am I exhibiting?

 

compensation

 

27

What defense mechanism uses logic to excuse emotional or irrational behavior? 

 

rationalization

 

28

Regression involves reverting to what kind of behaviors? 

 

childish behaviors

 

29

What is denial? 

 
 
 

 refusal to acknowledge or accept unwanted beliefs or actions

 
 
 

30

Which defense mechanism involves the channelling or redirecting of sexual or aggressive feelings into a more socially acceptable outlet?

 
 

sublimation

 
 

31

What describes man's inherent envy towards woman's ability to nurture and sustain life? 

 
 

womb envy

 
 

32

What are the five stages of psychoanalytic development? 

 

  1. oral stage
  2. anal stage
  3. phallic stage
  4. latency period
  5. genital stage
 

33

In Karen Horney's theory of personality, what is important in forming the basis of the adult personality? 

 
 

interactions between the child and the parent as the child deals with basic anxiety

 
 

34

What characterizes basic anxiety, a main tenet in Karen Horney's theory of personality? 

 

the feeling of being alone in an unfamiliar or hostile world

 

35

Carl Jung's theory of personality is based on the idea that the mind comprises pairs of __________.

 
 

opposing forces 

 
 

36

What, according to Carl Jung's theory, is the persona?

 
 

the mask that each person presents to the outside world

 
 

37

Carl Jung would describe the deep, passionate, inner person as that person's __________. 

 
 

shadow 

 
 

38

According to Jung, each person contains a female and a male side to our personality, or an __________ and __________.

 
 

anima; animus

 
 

39

According to Jung's theory, what is the purpose of the self? 

 

to balance the opposing forces and the desires of the mind

 

40

What are the two divisions of unconsciousness in Jung's theory? 

 

  1. personal unconsciousness
  2. collective unconscious
 

41

What comprises the personal unconsciousness?

 

repressed memories and clusters of thought

 

42

What can be found in the collective unconscious? 

 

behavior and memory common to all humans and passed down from our ancient and common ancestors

 

43

Archetypes, found in the collective unconscious, are characterized as what? 

 

the behaviors and memories in the collective unconscious

 

44

Alfred Adler's theory of personality speculated that children develop feelings of __________ due to their size and level of competence, and they spend the rest of their lives trying to overcome it.

 
 

inferiority

 
 

45

According to Adler, the best way to overcome inferiority is through development of __________; failure to do so could result in the development of a(n) __________. 

 
 

social interest; inferiority complex

 
 

46

What do the humanistic theories of personality emphasize? 

 

the uniqueness and richness of being human

 

47

What two aspects do the humanistic theories focus on? 

 

  1. subjective reality 
  2. subjective mental events
 

48

According to the humanist perspective, what is the ultimate purpose for existence? 

 

self-actualization 

 

49

What characterizes self-actualization? 

 

creatively becoming the person you are capable of being
 

50

Name two humanistic theorists.

 

  1. Abraham Maslow 
  2. Carl Rogers 
 

51

What is the self-concept? 

 

the mental representation of who we feel we truly are

 

52

According to humanist theory, when do internal conflicts arise? 

 

when we experience incongruence between our self-concept and our actual thoughts and behaviors

 

53

According to Rogers, __________ distort our self-concept

 
 

conditions of worth 

 
 

54

What are conditions of worth, according to Rogers? 

 

other people's evaluations of our worth

 

55

In Rogerian theory, __________ is meant to combat the conditions of worth that are often imposed and can lead to unhealthy self-concepts. 

 
 

unconditional positive regard 

 
 

56

What do social-cognitive theories assume about personality? 

 

that cognitive constructs are the basis of the personality

 

57

In social-cognitive theory, how are constructs developed and modified? 

 

through learning in social environments

 

58

Albert Bandura focused on the idea of __________ as central to personality. 

 
 

self-efficacy

 
 

59

What does self-efficacy encompass? 

 

one's beliefs about his/her own abilities in a given situation

 

60

Which social-cognitive theory of personality, proposed by Julian Rotter, believes that effort has a major role in personality?

 
 

locus of control theory 

 
 

61

What is the difference between people who have an internal locus of control and those who have an external locus of control?

 

Those with an internal locus of control believe that successes or failures are a direct result of their efforts; those with an external locus of control are more likely to attribute successes or failures to luck or chance. 

 

62

According to trait theorists, traits are largely __________ rather than acquired through experience. 

 
 

inherited

 
 

63

What are the big five personality traits? 

 

  1. introversion/extroversion
  2. neuroticism/stability
  3. agreeableness/antagonism
  4. conscientiousness/undirectedness
  5. openness/non-openness 
 

64

This statistical measure allows researchers to use correlations between traits to see which traits cluster together as factors.

 
 

factor analysis

 
 

65

heritability

 
 

a measure of the amount of variation in a trait in a certain population that is due to genetics

 
 

66

What are two methods of trait research analysis? 

 

  1. nomothetic analysis
  2. idiographic analysis 
 

67

What is the main difference between nomothetic and idiographic traits? 

 

Nomothetic traits are thought to be universal (i.e. the big five), while idiographic traits are unique to the individual.

 

68

According to Gordon Allport, what are the three types of traits?

 
 

  1. cardinal 
  2. central 
  3. secondary
 
 

69

According to Allport, a trait that overrides one's whole being is a __________, while __________ are the person's primary characteristics, and traits that constitute interests are __________. 

 
 

cardinal trait; central traits; secondary 

 
 

70

The theory that we try to make sense of the world by generating, testing, and revising hypotheses about our social reality, was developed by George Kelly. It is known as what?

 

personal construct theory

 

71

Which theorist is known for recognizing that traits often vary depending on circumstances? 

 

Walter Mischel 

 

72

According to the cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) developed by Walter Mischel, interaction among five factors and characteristics of the situation account for individual behavior differences across situations. What are these five factors?

 

  1. encoding strategies
  2. expectancies and beliefs
  3. goals and values
  4. feelings
  5. personal competencies and self-regulatory processes 
 

73

What are behavioral signatures?

 

consistent ways of responding in similar situations that characterize our personality

 

74

Hans Eysenck used factor analysis to identify common behavioral traits along three dimensions. What are they?

 

  1. extroversion
  2. neuroticism
  3. psychoticism
 

75

Raymond Cattel believed that __________, the person's underlying characteristics, were the basis of personality and gave rise to __________. 

 
 

source traits; surface traits 

 
 

76

What is one main problem with Freud's psychoanalytic theory?

 

theory was not developed through empirical testing

 

77

What is one problem with the humanistic theory?

 

lacks empirical evidence and has an overly optimistic outlook on life

 

78

What is one problem with the cognitive theory?

 

does not account for the breadth of humanness 

 

79

What is one problem with trait theories?

 

unable to explain the origin of personality

 

80

Typically, what does psychoanalytic assessment involve? 

 

a one-on-one therapist and patient relationship, in which the therapist uses techniques (such as free association and dream recall) to gain access to the unconscious

 

81

What makes it difficult to assess someone on a humanistic level? 

 

The personal nature of the self makes it impossible for a test or assessment tool to measure the levels at which someone is being true to his "real" self.
 

82

Name three assessment tools used by trait theorists.

 

  1. Eysenck Personality Inventory
  2. 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire 
  3. MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
 

83

What is the Hawthorne Effect?

 

a flaw in naturalistic observational studies; when people know that they are being observed, they change their behavior to what they think the observer expects, or to present themselves well

 

84

What is the difference between self-concept and self-esteem?

 

Self-concept refers to how we view ourselves; self-esteem refers to how much we value ourselves

 

85

What are the two parts of self-understanding?

 

  1. me 
  2. I
 

86

What four components characterize the "me" of self-understanding?

 
 

  1. physical self 
  2. active self
  3. social self 
  4. psychological self 
 
 

87

What two factors comprise the physical self in self-understanding? 

 
 

  1. body
  2. name
 
 

88

Under what sector of "me", in self-understanding, would one find behaviors?

 
 

the active self 

 
 

89

What does the social self, found in the "me" of self-understanding,  descibe?

 
 

how we interact with others

 
 

90

What sector of the "me" in self-understanding is comprised of our feelings and personalities? 

 
 
 

the psychological self 

 
 
 

91

What is the role of the "I" in self-understanding, and what is it responsible for?

 
 

The "I" is the self-knower, and is responsible for the coordination and interpretation of the four parts of the "me."

 
 

92

What allows us to reflect on ourselves and have a self-concept? 

 
 

the "I" in self-understanding

 
 

93

What is the halo effect? 

 

the error by which we generalize a high self-evaluation from one domain to another

 

94

What are the eleven domains of competency within which we evaluate ourselves? 

 

  1. morality
  2. sociability
  3. intimacy
  4. athleticism
  5. intelligence
  6. sense of humor
  7. nurturance
  8. job competence
  9. adequacy as a provider
  10. physical appearance
  11. household management
 

95

What are two side effects of low self-esteem? 

 

  1. reluctance to try new tasks
  2. reluctance to persist at tasks already started 
 

96

If I were to take pride in the accomplishments of an individual with whom I strongly affiliate, what theory would I be engaging in?

 

basking in reflective glory

 

97

What is the early-appearing set of individual differences in reaction and regulation? 

 

temperament

 

98

William Sheldon's somatotype theory claims that certain personality traits are associated with each of three body types. What are they?

 
 

  1. endodorph (fat)
  2. mesomorph (muscular)
  3. ectomorph (thin)
 
 

99

The theory of triadic reciprocality, proposed by Al Bandura, is based off of what idea? 

 
 

that each factor of personality (traits, environment, behavior) influences the others in a constant and loop-like fashion

 
 

100

Used primarily by psychoanalysts, __________ present ambiguous stimuli (i.e. inkblots) with the assumption that test takers will project their unconscious thoughts onto the stimuli.

 
 

projective personality tests

 
 

101

What three factors must be present in order for a trait to be considered part of temperament? 

 

  1. early-appearing
  2. stable
  3. constitutionally-based 
 

102

Mary Rothbart assessed temperament on three scales: __________, __________, and__________. 

 
 
 

  1. surgency
  2. negative affect
  3. effortful control
 
 
 

103

Andrew is a straight-A student who needs to be in charge of all his group projects and gets angry at his group members when they aren't chipping in. Ike is more go-with-the-flow and isn't easily angered. Which has the type A personality and which has the type B personality?

Andrew has the type A personality

Ike has the type B personality

104

What are the defining characteristics of stage theories?

Stage theories believe people develop in stages, or steps, in the same order, and one stage can be distinguished from all other stages.

105

What are the stages of Freud's psychosexual stage theory?

  1. oral stage (birth to one year)
  2. anal stage (one to three years)
  3. phallic stage (three to five years)
  4. latency stage (six years to puberty)
  5. genital stage (puberty onward)

For more information, see the Developmental Psychology cards.

106

What assessment technique attempts to ensure consistency in test results?

 
 

reliability 

 
 

107

What does validity measure?

 
 

accuracy; assesses whether or not the test measures what it is supposed to measure

 
 

108

What research effect observes that individuals will claim general descriptions of their personality (that can apply to a wide range of people) are highly accurate?

 
 

Barnum effect