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Flashcards in Treatment of Abnormal Behavior Deck (90):
1

What is a psychiatrist?

a medical doctor (M.D.) who can prescribe medicine and perform surgery

2

These individuals have their Ph.D. or Psy.D. and treat patients using a variety of therapeutic approaches.

clinical psychologists

3

Counseling psychologists have earned a Ph.D., Ed.D., Psy.D., or M.A. and deal with what types of issues?

Counseling psychologists deal with less severe mental health problems, including marital therapy.

4

What type of mental health practitioners follow the teaching of Sigmund Freud?

psychoanalysts

5

What type of degree do social workers typically hold?

Social workers must earn their Master's degree in social work (M.S.W.).

6

What current approach is most similar to the beliefs of ancient Greeks, such as Hippocrates and Galen?

biological

2000 years ago, Greek physicians believed psychological problems had physical causes.

7

deinstitutionalization

a 1950s movement which relocated nonthreatening patients from mental hospitals to community centers

8

What was the main consequence of deinstitutionalization?

Deinstitutionalization created an increase in the homeless population.

9

The process of __________ synthesizes the results of several research studies about the same variables.

meta-analysis

10

psychotherapy

therapy that treats the mind, not the body

11

__________ therapies help clients become self-aware of their problems in order to change behavior.

Insight

12

List the five types of insight therapy.

  1. psychoanalysis
  2. psychodynamic therapy
  3. interpersonal psychotherapy
  4. humanstic client-centered therapy
  5. Gestalt therapy

13

According to the psychoanalytic approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?

unconscious internal conflict and early childhood trauma

14

What is the goal of psychoanalysis?

to give the patient insight by bringing their conflicts into the conscious mind

15

Describe traits of traditional psychoanalysis.

  • several meetings a week for years
  • therapist is not visible to client
  • free association
  • dream interpretation
  • hypnosis

16

Asking the patient to say whatever comes to mind without censoring is asking the patient to engage in a psychoanalytic technique called __________.

free association

17

Define manifest content as it relates to psychoanalysis.

surface information recalled about a dream

18

Define latent content as it relates to psychoanalysis.

hidden, underlying meaning of content in dreams

19

In psychoanalytic dream interpretation, the surface information is called the __________ content, while the hidden, underlying meaning is termed the __________ content.

manifest; latent

20

Define resistance as it relates to psychoanalysis.

Resistance is the blocking of feelings or experiences that provoke anxiety.

21

Projecting emotional feelings onto the psychoanalyst is known as __________.

transference

22

Define countertransference as it relates to psychoanalysis.

psychoanalyst projects emotional feelings onto the patient

23

Define catharsis as it relates to psychoanalysis.

the release of emotional tension and anxiety after reliving an emotionally charged experience

24

How does psychodynamic therapy compare with psychoanalysis?

Psychodynamic therapy:

  • is shorter in duration
  • occurs less frequently
  • invovles the client facing the therapist
  • does not stress the importance of childhood trauma

25

What type of therapy aims to relieve present symptoms by focusing on the patient's current situation?

interpersonal psychotherapy

26

According to the humanistic approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?

external factors have affected the patient's ability to grow emotionally

27

What is the goal of humanistic therapy?

to reduce the difference between the ideal self and the real self

28

Define self-actualization as it relates to humanistic therapy.

the process of fulfilling one's individual potential

29

Explain how humanistic therapy is non-directive.

Humanistic therapy is client-centered. Non-directive therapy encourages the client to control the therapeutic route.

30

Define active listening as it relates to humanistic therapy.

Active listening involves echoing, restating, and clarifying what the client says and does.

31

Define accurate empathic understanding as it relates to humanistic therapy.

therapists try to view the world through the eyes of the client

32

Humanistic therapy provides an atmosphere of acceptance, known as __________.

unconditional positive regard

33

Who invented client-centered therapy?

Carl Rogers

34

The emphasis on organizing the world in a meaningful way is a principle of __________ psychology.

Gestalt

35

Describe traits of traditional Gestalt therapy.

  • directive questioning
  • discarding of feelings that lack personal meaning
  • dream interpretation
  • present behavior, feelings, and thoughts

36

Who created Gestalt therapy?

Fritz Perls

37

Sigmund Freud is to psychoanalysis as __________ is to behavioral therapy.

B.F. Skinner

38

According to the behavioral approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?

reinforcement of maladaptive behavior

39

What is the goal of behavior therapy?

to replace unwanted behavior with adaptive behavior

40

How does classical conditioning treat abnormal behavior?

process of creating associations between neutral stimuli and desired responses

41

Describe the classical conditioning experiment with Little Albert.

  • conditioned a nine-month-old baby named Albert to fear a rat
  • Albert wouldn't cry from the sight of the rat, but cried from loud noise
  • loud noise was played when Baby Albert reached for the rat
  • Albert eventually cried at sight of the rat

42

List three types of classical conditioning.

  1. systematic desensitization
  2. flooding
  3. aversive conditioning

43

Systematic desensitization, developed by Joseph Wolpe, is a step-by-step type of classical conditioning that associates feared stimuli with __________.

relaxation

44

What is an anxiety hierarchy?

a rank of fears associated with a stimulus from least-feared to most-feared

Example:

  1. thinking about a spider
  2. seeing a picture of a spider
  3. touching a toy spider
  4. being in the same room as a real spider
  5. touching a real spider

45

Define flooding as it relates to classical conditioning.

  • exposure technique used to eliminate phobias and anxiety issues
  • patient directly confronts the stimulus they fear

46

In an attempt to stop drinking, you take a pill that makes you nauseous only when there is alcohol in your system.

aversive conditioning

47

counterconditioning

  • replacing undesired conditioned responses with desired responses
  • type of classical conditioning
  • developed by Mary Cover Jones

48

operant conditioning

rewards are used to reinforce target behavior

49

List two examples of operant conditioning.

  1. behavior modification
  2. token economies

50

small steps are rewarded until the intended goal is achieved

behavior modification

51

desired behaviors are rewarded with symbolic secondary reinforcers that can be exchanged for valued objects, such as food or money

token economy

52

Social skills training helps people get readjusted to society. List the three steps involved.

  1. modeling
  2. rehearsal
  3. shaping

53

Define modeling as it relates to social skills training.

observing socially skilled people to learn acceptable behavior

54

Define rehearsal as it relates to social skills training.

practicing appropriate behavior through role-playing

55

Define shaping as it relates to social skills training.

reinforcing and giving feedback about behavior

56

According to the cognitive approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?

irrational and flawed thought patterns

57

What is the goal of cognitive therapy?

cognitive restructuring, or the process of correcting faulty thoughts and replacing them with positive, realistic thoughts

58

In Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), treatment involves confronting absurd thoughts about the client's ABCs.

What are the ABCs?

  • actions
  • beliefs about actions
  • consequences of beliefs

59

What is the tyranny of the "shoulds" and how do cognitive therapists treat it?

  • Individuals engage in absurd or unrealistic behavior because they believe they must
  • Therapists challenge the client's belief so in defending it, he or she will recognize the absurdity

60

__________ created Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy, while __________ developed the cognitive triad.

Albert Ellis; Aaron Beck

61

The cognitive triad examines what a person thinks about his or her __________, __________, and __________.

self; world; future

62

How does Martin Seligman relate the cognitive triad to depression?

Individuals with depression believe they caused the negative events, the events will affect everything they do, and will last forever.

63

Define dichotomous thinking as it relates to cognitive therapy.

  • creating all-or-none conceptions of scenarios
  • maladaptive schema

64

Define arbitrary inferences as they relate to cognitive therapy.

  • conclusion drawn without evidence
  • maladaptive schema

65

According to the biological approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?

a chemical imbalance of hormones or neurotransmitters; possibly genetic

66

What is the goal of psychopharmacotherapy?

Psychotropic drugs are used to restore chemical balance and treat mental disorders.

67

What do psychopharmacologists do to counter the effects of drug tolerance?

It is necessary to supplement biomedical treatment with therapy if a patient builds a tolerance to the drug.

68

List the four types of psychotropic drugs.

  1. anxiolytics
  2. antidepressants
  3. stimulants
  4. neuroleptics

69

anxiolytics

tranquilizers and antianxiety drugs that contain benzodiazepines, which increase the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA

70

anxiolytics

  • Valium
  • Xanax
  • BuSpar
  • Librium

71

What disorders are anxiolytics used to treat?

  • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • panic disorder
  • generalized anxiety disorder
  • agoraphobia

72

antidepressants

elevate mood by making monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine more available

73

antidepressants

  • monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
    • Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft, Lexapro

74

What disorders are antidepressants used to treat?

  • major depression
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • panic disorder
  • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • seizures

75

stimulants

psychoactive drugs that increase activity of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine

76

stimulants

  • Ritalin
  • Dexedrine

77

What disorders are stimulants used to treat?

  • narcolepsy
  • attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

78

neuroleptics

antipsychotics that reduce psychological tension, stop hallucinations and delusions, improve sleep, and produce appropriate behavior by blocking dopamine receptors

79

neuroleptics

  • Thorazine
  • Haldol
  • Clozaril

80

What disorders are neuroleptics used to treat?

  • schizophrenia
  • psychosis

81

What drug is used to treat bipolar disorder?

lithium carbonate

82

What are the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia?

Tardive dyskinesia, a possible symptom of neuroleptics, leaves people with difficulty walking and involuntary muscle spasms.

83

Define electroconvulsive shock treatment (ECT) as it relates to psychopharmacotherapy.

Patients, while under anesthesia, receive an electric shock. Sometimes causing temporary memory loss, ECT is a last resort for treating major depression.

84

How is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) different from electroconvulsive shock treatment?

Although both procedures treat depression, rTMS is:

  • painless
  • pulses travel through magnetic coil attached to area above right eyebrow
  • given daily

85

What is a prefrontal lobotomy?

  • popular during 1935-1955
  • psychosurgery (removal of brain tissue)
  • cut neural tracts connecting lower brain regions to frontal lobes
  • treat violent schizophrenia
  • patients left impassive

86

List examples of issues community psychologists help clients cope with.

  • unemployment
  • poverty
  • well-baby care
  • suicide prevention
  • sexual health
  • child abuse prevention

87

List four advantages of group therapy, as compared with individual therapy.

  1. meet people with similar issues
  2. less verbal patients can open up
  3. input from both therapist and other group members
  4. cheaper

88

What is the main goal of both couples and family therapy?

improving communication in relationships

89

A peer support group where sessions are led by the group members themselves is known as a __________.

self-help group

90

Name an example of a self-help group.

Alcoholics Anonymous