Testing and Individual Differences Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Testing and Individual Differences > Flashcards

Flashcards in Testing and Individual Differences Deck (75):
1

What is the purpose of a test?

Tests are used to make decisions.

2

What do psychometricians do?

  • measurement psychologists
  • analyze psychological data
  • test development
  • measure mental traits and processes

3

constructs

theoretical ideas about a group of events related to behavior

Examples:

intelligence, happiness, honesty

4

Define norms as it relates to testing.

standards used to compare the scores between test takers

5

List three traits of a good test.

  1. standardized
  2. reliable
  3. valid

6

Define standardization as it relates to testing.

Two-part test development process:

  1. establishes test norms from test results of large sample
  2. ensures test is administered and scored uniformly for everyone

7

Define reliability as it relates to testing.

consistency of results over time

8

What are the four types of reliability?

  1. test-retest
  2. split-half
  3. equivalent (or alternate) form
  4. interrater

9

test-retest reliability

  • scores are consistent on a given test when the same participants are tested on two separate occasions
  • problematic because of familiarity with test questions

Example:

If you take your French test once on Monday and again on Friday, your scores should be similar.

10

split-half reliability

consistency between scores on one half of the test and scores on the other half of the test

Example:

The scores on even-numbered questions should correlate with the scores on odd-numbered questions.

11

equivalent form reliability

  • two tests with different questions about the same material given to the same participants produce consistent scores
  • a.k.a. alternative form reliability

Example:

Your score on the September SAT should be consistent with your score on the October SAT.

12

interrater reliability

consistency in scores given by different graders 

Example:

If you pass your road test with one instructor, you should pass the test with any instructor.

13

Define validity as it relates to testing.

extent to which a test accurately measures what it is supposed to

14

What are the five types of validity?

  1. face
  2. content
  3. criterion-related
  4. predictive
  5. construct

15

face validity

content of the test reflects the material it is supposed to, according to the test takers

Example:

The AP Psych exam should reflect the material provided in the test outline.

16

content validity

content of the test reflects a wide range of the material it is supposed to, not just a small portion

Example:

Research on depression should examine the biological, behavioral, and cognitive aspects.

17

criterion-related validity

test scores correlate with other measures of the same material

Example:

Scores on the written driving test should correlate with scores on the road test.

18

predictive validity

test scores accurately predict a future result

Example:

High SAT scores should predict high grades in college.

19

construct validity

operational defintion of the tested variable agrees with its theoretical construct

Example:

The score on an IQ test should reflect one's intelligence.

20

If a test is __________, someone will earn the same score no matter who scores it.

standardized

21

If a test is __________, someone will earn the same score no matter where, when, or how many times they take the test.

reliable

22

An algebra exam that contains questions about geography lacks __________.

validity

23

What is the difference between projective tests and inventory tests?

Projective tests, including the Rorschach Inkblot or TAT, allow for interpretation of ambiguous stimuli, while inventory-type tests require answers to standardized questions.

24

performance test

  • test taker knows how to respond to questions and tries to succeed
  • can be speed test or power test

Examples:

IQ tests, SATs, AP exams, road test, classroom tests

25

What is the difference between a speed test and a power test?

A speed test presents a large number of easy questions in a limited time frame, while a power test presents a varying level of questions and allots more time.

26

observational test

test taker is assessed on specific behavior or performance

Example:

job interview

27

self-report test

test taker describes his or her own beliefs, attitudes, feelings, or physical state

Example:

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) and other personality tests

28

ability test

  • examines performance on cognitively demanding tasks, including scholastic performance
  • includes aptitude and achievement tests

Examples:

SATs and AP exams

29

What is the difference between an aptitude test and an achievement test?

  • An aptitude test, such as the SAT, predicts a person's future performance or his/her capacity to learn
  • An achievement test, such as the AP Psych exam, assesses what a person has already learned

30

interest test

uses a person's likes and dislikes to predict future life satisfaction

Example:

Strong-Cambell Interest Inventory and other career tests

31

personality test

aims to reveal a consistency in behavior over a wide range of situations

Examples:

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Rorschach Inkblot, and Big Five Factor Inventory

32

What is the difference between a group test and an individual test?

Group tests:

  • given to many people at once by one instructor
  • cheaper and more objective
  • AP Psych exam is an example

Individual tests:

  • require interaction between one test taker and the examiner
  • expensive and subjective
  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test is an example

33

What are the purposes of ethical standards in testing?

  • promote best interest of client
  • guard against misuse or malpractice
  • monitor test purpose and use of results
  • respect client's confidentiality and dignity

34

What are culture-relevant tests?

test skills and knowledge related to the specific cultural experiences of the test takers

35

What is the operational definition of intelligence?

an individual's capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment

36

When is a construct reified?

Reification occurs when a construct, such as intelligence, is treated as if it were a concrete, tangible object.

37

What was Francis Galton's contribution to intelligence testing?

  • used psychomotor tasks to determine intelligence
  • people with high physical ability are more likely to survive, therefore more intelligent
  • based work off his cousin, Charles Darwin

38

mental age

  • age at which typical children give same response to test questions
  • based on Alfred Binet's idea that knowledge becomes more sophisiticated as people get older

39

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was developed by __________.

Lewis Terman

40

How does the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale measure someone's intelligent quotient (IQ)?

IQ = MA/CA * 100

MA = mental age

CA = chronological age

41

What are the five ability areas measured both verbally and nonverbally by the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale?

  1. knowledge
  2. fluid reasoning
  3. working memory
  4. visual-spatial processing
  5. quantitative reasoning

42

What are the three types of Wechsler intelligence scales?

  1. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (W.P.P.S.I.)
  2. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (W.I.S.C.)
  3. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (W.A.I.S.)

43

What are the two types of scores on the Wechsler intelligence scales?

  1. verbal score (vocabulary, comprehension, arithmetic)
  2. performance score (picture arrangement, object assembly, block design)

44

How do the Wechsler scales determine intelligent quotients (IQ)?

  • intelligence has a bell curve distribution
  • how spread out the scores are from mean of 100

45

What are the most prominant IQ levels on the Wechsler scale?

  • under 70 = cognitively disabled
  • 80-115 = normal
  • above 130 = gifted


About 68% of the population falls in the normal range.

46

When are the Wechsler intelligence scales more appropriate to use than the Stanford-Binet?

  • Wechsler scales are key in identifying extreme levels of intelligence, including mental retardation and giftedness
  • The difference between Wechsler's verbal and performance scores is helpful in identifying learning disabilities

47

An appropriate synonym for "mentally retarded" is __________.

cognitively disabled

48

What are the four levels of mental retardation based on IQ scores?

  • under 20 = Profound
  • 20-34 = Severe
  • 35-49 = Moderate
  • 50-70 = Mild


About 85% of cognitively disabled individuals are considered mild.

49

Explain the differences between mild, moderate, severe, and profound mental retardation.

  • mild: self-care, 6th grade education, hold job, live independently, social skills
  • moderate: self-care, 2nd grade education, menial job, function in group home
  • severe: limited language, requires care, no social skills
  • profound: requires complete care

50

A specific type of deinstitutionalization, known as __________, moved the cognitively disabled out of hospitals and into group or family homes.

normalization

51

factor analysis

statistical procedure that identifies common factors within a group of items by determining which variables are most correlated

52

How did Charles Spearman contribute to intelligence research?

  • tested a wide variety of mental tasks on a large number of people
  • identified underlying variables g and s

53

What are Spearman's g and s variables?

g = general factor underlying all intelligence

s = less important specialized abilities

54

Louis Thurstone identified seven distinct intelligence factors, called primary mental abilities.

Name them.

  1. inductive reasoning
  2. word fluency
  3. perceptual speed
  4. verbal comprehension
  5. spatial visualization
  6. numerical ability
  7. associative memory

55

John Horn and Raymond Cattell divided intelligence into the factors of __________ and __________.

fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence

56

fluid intelligence

cognitive abilities that require quick learning and diminish with age

57

crystallized intelligence

learned knowledge and skills that increase with age, such as vocabulary

58

savant

an individual, considered mentally retarded, who is exceptionally skilled in a specific area, usually math, art, or music

59

Who proposed the theory of multiple intelligences?

Howard Gardner

60

What is the theory of multiple intelligences?

  • idea that people process information differently and intelligence is composed of different factors
  • stemmed from unusual nature of savants

61

According to Howard Gardner, what are the eight types of intelligence?

  1. logical-mathematical
  2. verbal-linguistic
  3. spatial
  4. bodily-kinesthetic
  5. musical
  6. interpersonal
  7. intrapersonal
  8. naturalistic

62

What is the significance of emotional intelligence?

  • ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
  • based on Gardner's intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence
  • term coined by Peter Salovey and John Mayer
  • later studied by Daniel Goleman
  • led to Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS)

63

The triarchic theory of intelligence was proposed by __________.

Robert Sternberg

64

What is the triarchic theory of intelligence?

Idea that there are three separate and testable intelligences:

  1. analytical (facts)
  2. practical (street smarts)
  3. creative (seeing multiple solutions)

65

Define creativity as it relates to testing.

ability to generate new, original, and useful ideas and solutions

66

What is the threshold theory?

idea that certain level of intelligence is necessary, but not sufficient for creativity

67

Intelligence is 75% attributed to __________ and 25% to __________.

nurture; nature

68

What are examples of evidence supporting the idea that intelligence is hereditary?

  • mental retardation from genetic defects (Down syndrome)
  • twin studies (identical twins have higher correlation between IQs than fraternal twins)
  • IQ scores of adoptees are more similar to biological parents than adopted parents

69

What are examples of evidence supporting the idea that intelligence is learned?

  • mental retardation from prenatal exposure to alcohol (Fetal alcohol syndrome)
  • cultural-familial retardation (from sociocultural deprivation)
  • school attendance increases IQ scores
  • Flynn effect (increase in IQ scores over time due to better health care and schooling)

70

Define heritability as it relates to testing.

proportion of variation among individuals in a population resulting from genetic causes

71

How does the reaction range model explain intelligence using both nature and nurture influences?

This model states that genetic makeup determines the limits for a person's IQ. The upper limit can be reached when in an ideal environment, just as the lower limit can be displayed when in an impoverished environment.

72

How do IQ scores of African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanic Americans compare with white children?

white children typically score 10-15 points higher

73

within-group differences

range of scores for variables being measured for a group of individuals

74

between-group differences

difference between means of two groups for a common variable

75

stereotype threat

  • idea that anxiety influences test score
  • performance could confirm negative stereotype
  • proposed by Claude Steele