Learning Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (77):
1

learning

relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience

2

What are the three types of learning?

  1. classical conditioning
  2. operant conditioning
  3. cognitive learning

3

classical conditioning

learning that takes place when two stimuli, one conditioned and one unconditioned, are presented together to induce the same response

For example, Pavlov rang a bell when he was going to feed his dogs. The dogs would naturally salivate when food was presented to them, but over time when Pavlov rang his bell his dogs would salivate even without the presence of food.

4

Define acquisition as it relates to classical conditioning.

passively learning to give a known response to a new stimulus

5

Define stimulus as it relates to classical conditioning.

change in the environment that brings about a response

6

Define response as it relates to classical conditioning.

reaction to a stimulus

7

Stimuli that increase the likelihood of a behavior are called __________.

reinforcers

8

When you put food in your mouth, you salivate.

  • stimulus: food
  • response: salivation

9

What was the premise of Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning experiment?

Dogs salivate at the sight of food because they form associations with food and events preceding eating the food. Pavlov sounded a bell right before presenting food, so the dogs would ultimately salivate at the sound of the bell.

10

neutral stimulus (NS)

stimulus that initially does not elicit a response until it becomes CS

Pavlov's example:

The NS is the bell because it does not produce salivation until it is paired with the food.

11

unconditioned stimulus (UCS or US)

reflexively, automatically brings about a response

Pavlov's example:

Food is the UCS because it automatically brings about salivation.

12

unconditioned response (UCR or UR)

automatic, involuntary reaction to the unconditioned stimulus

Pavlov's example:

The UCR is salivation because the dogs automatically salivate when they eat food.

13

conditioned stimulus (CS)

starts as neutral stimulus, but when paired with UCS, eventually brings about the conditioned response

Pavlov's example:

The CS is the bell because, when paired with the food, it brought about salivation.

14

conditioned response (CR)

learned response to a previously neutral stimulus

Pavlov's example:

Salivation is the CR because the dog learned to salivate in response to the bell.

15

How is delayed conditioning timed?

neutral stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus

Pavlov's example:

The bell rings just before food is presented.

16

How is trace conditioning timed?

neutral stimulus is presented and then taken away before the unconditioned stimulus appears

Pavlov's example:

Bell rings, followed by a long time lapse, then food is presented.

17

How is simultaneous conditioning timed?

neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are presented together at the same time

Pavlov's example:

The bell rings and food is presented at the same time.

18

How is backward conditioning timed?

unconditioned stimulus is presented before the neutral stimulus

Pavlov's example:

Food is presented before the bell rings.

19

What researcher(s) were behind the Little Albert experiment?

John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner

20

Explain the Little Albert classical conditioning experiment.

  • conditioned a nine-month-old baby named Albert to fear a rat
  • Albert wouldn't cry from the sight of the rat, but cried from loud noise
  • loud noise was played when Albert reached for the rat
  • Albert eventually cried at sight of the rat

21

Identify the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR in the Little Albert experiment.

  • UCS: loud noise
  • UCR: fear
  • CS: white rat
  • CR: fear

22

extinction

elimination of the CR through presenting the CS without the UCS repeatedly

Pavlov's example: ring bell without food, dog will not salivate from bell

Little Albert: present rat without loud noise, baby will not cry from rat

23

spontaneous recovery

original response disappears and then returns later on

Pavlov's example: salivation from bell stops and then returns

Little Albert: baby stops crying from presence of rat and then begins again

24

generalization

stimuli similar to the CS elicit the CR without any new conditioning

Pavlov's example: dog salivates from bells with different tones, pitches, or lengths

Little Albert: baby cries from other white fluffy stimuli, such as white bunnies or cotton balls

25

discrimination

CR is only produced by the presence of the CS because other stimuli is too dissimilar

Pavlov's example: dog will not salivate to a doorbell or telephone ring

Little Albert: baby will not cry at presence of a black rat 

26

What is higher-order (a.k.a. second-order) conditioning?

learning which occurs when a previously learned CS is now used as the US to produce a CR to a new stimulus

Example:

Flashing a light before Pavlov's bell would train the dogs to salivate from only the light.

27

operant conditioning

learning that occurs when subject performs certain voluntary behavior, and the consequences of the behavior determine the likelihood of its recurrence

28

How did Edward Thorndike contribute to research on operant conditioning?

  • put cats in puzzle boxes to demonstrate trial and error in obtaining a fish
  • coined the terms "instrumental learning" and "Law of Effect"

29

What is instrumental learning?

Thorndike's term for type of associative learning where a behavior becomes more or less probable depending on its consequence

30

Explain the Law of Effect.

  • behaviors followed by a positive consequence are strengthened and more likely to occur
  • behaviors followed by a negative consequence are weakened and less likely to occur
  • concluded by Edward Thorndike

31

What is a Skinner box?

operant conditioning chamber for research animals, designed by B.F. Skinner, that contained levers, food dispensers, lights, and an electrified grid

32

What are the four training procedures of B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?

  1. positive reinforcement
  2. negative reinforcement
  3. punishment
  4. omission training

33

positive reinforcement

reward training where a behavior is followed by a reinforcer that increases the probability that the behavior will occur again

Example:

praise after participating in class

34

What is the Premack principle?

type of positive reinforcement where a more probable behavior is used as a reinforcer for a less probable one

Example:

treating yourself to an hour of TV after spending three hours studying for the AP Psych exam

35

negative reinforcement

removing an unpleasant consequence

Example:

taking an advil to relieve a headache

36

Explain the two types of negative reinforcement.

  1. avoidance behavior: takes away the aversive stimulus before it begins
  2. escape behavior: takes away the aversive stimulus after it has already started

37

punishment

unpleasant consequence that follows a voluntary behavior, decreasing the probability the behavior will be repeated; a.k.a. positive punishment

Example:

spanking a child for misbehaving

38

omission training

removing a rewarding consequence following a voluntary behavior, decreasing the probability the behavior will be repeated

Example:

taking away a child's toy after misbehaving

39

What is aversive conditioning?

learning that involves an unpleasant stimulus or reinforcer, such as negative reinforcement and punishment

40

learned helplessness

state of feeling powerless to change yourself or your situation because of a prior inability to avoid an aversive event

41

What are the three types of reinforcers?

  1. primary
  2. secondary
  3. generalized

42

primary reinforcers

something that is biologically, naturally important and therefore rewarding

Example:

food and drink

43

secondary reinforcers

something neutral that can become rewarding when associated with a primary reinforcer

Examples:

gold stars, tokens, points, money

44

generalized reinforcers

secondary reinforcer that can be associated with several primary reinforcers

Example:

money can be used to buy food and also other enjoyable items.

45

How does a token economy work?

  • operant conditioning system
  • secondary reinforcers are used to increase acceptable behaviors
  • tokens can be exchanged for privileges and prizes
  • used in mental hospitals and jails

46

Define behavior modification in terms of operant conditioning.

  • small steps are rewarded until the intended goal is achieved
  • uses the behavioral approach to solve individual, institutional, and societal problems

47

How is shaping used to teach a new behavior?

positively reinforcing closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

Example:

In toilet training, rewards are given to the child at each step.

48

Define chaining as it relates to operant conditioning.

  • initially positively reinforcing each behavior in a certain order
  • later on, rewards only given for completing the whole sequence
  • in order to establish a specific sequence of behaviors

49

What is the purpose of reinforcement schedules?

to determine how and when reinforcers will be given to the learner

50

What is a continuous reinforcement schedule?

provides reinforcement every time the behavior is exhibited by human or animal

51

What is a partial reinforcement schedule?

  • reinforcing behavior only some of the time
  • a.k.a. intermittent schedule

52

What is a ratio schedule and what are the four types?

schedule based on the number of desired responses

  1. fixed ratio
  2. fixed interval
  3. variable ratio
  4. variable interval

53

fixed ratio schedule

reinforcement comes after a specific number of behavior responses

Example:

Every three times you get a question right, you get a piece of candy.

54

fixed interval schedule

reinforcement comes at a specific time

Example:

You know you have a quiz tomorrow, so you don't study until the night before.

55

variable ratio schedule

number of behavior responses needed for reinforcement changes

Example:

You sit at a slot machine pulling the lever hundreds of time because you don't know how many pulls are needed before the jackpot.

56

variable interval schedule

amount of time before reinforcement of behavior changes

Example:

You study every night in preparation for a pop quiz because you don't know when it is coming.

57

How is superstitious behavior formed?

When reinforcement occurs during an idiosyncratic behavior, the organism is likely to repeat that behavior, even though it doesn't cause the reinforcement.

58

What did John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner study?

studied only behaviors, disregarded thought processes because they were not observable

59

What do cognitive theorists believe humans and other animals are capable of, beyond classical and operant conditioning?

forming expectations and being consciously motivated by rewards

60

What is the contingency model?

Richard Rescorla's theory that the key to classical conditioning is how well the CS predicts the appearance of the UCS

61

What model did the contingency model counter?

Pavlov's contiguity model that classical conditioning is based on the association in time of the CS prior to the UCS

62

What is the blocking effect?

Leon Kamin's concept that conditioning effect of neutral stimulus is blocked when already conditioned with UCS

63

Name an example of delayed gratification.

saving money for college or a car, rather than spending it immediately

64

Who was Edward Tolman?

  • confirmed the presence of latent learning
  • found unrewarded rats form cognitive map of the maze so when presented with a reward, they are motivated to improve

65

latent learning

learning in the absence of rewards

66

Define insight as it relates to learning.

sudden appearance of an answer or solution to a problem

67

Who observed insight in chimpanzees?

Wolfgang Kohler

68

observational learning

  • learning that occurs by watching the behavior of a model
  • a.k.a. social learning or vicarious learning

69

What are the four steps of observational learning, according to Albert Bandura?

  1. attention
  2. retention
  3. reproduction
  4. motivation

70

What were the results of the bobo dolls experiment?

  • when offered rewards to imitate violent behavior, did not always lead to response
  • demonstrated modeling: those who watched violent models imitated them

71

What provides the biological basis for observational learning?

Mirror neurons are activated when you perform an action and when you observe someone else perform a similar action.

72

conditioned taste aversion

  • intense dislike and avoidance of a food because of its association with an unpleasant or painful stimulus through backward conditioning
  • adaptive responses of organisms to foods that could sicken or kill them
  • a.k.a. Garcia effect

73

Define preparedness as it relates to learning.

Through evolution, animals are biologically predisposed to easily learn behaviors related to their survival as a species.

74

Who experimented on conditioned taste aversions and biological preparedness in rats?

John Garcia and Robert Koelling

75

What is instinctive drift?

CR that drifts back toward the natural, instinctive behavior of the organism

76

What is the evidence of biological factors of learning?

Rats raised in enriched environments had thicker cortices, higher brain weight, and greater neural connectivity than rats raised in deprived environments.

77

What is long-term potentiation?

  • physiological change that correlates with a  stable change in behavior due to experience
  • "neurons that fire together, wire together"
  • studied by Donald Hebb and Eric Kandel