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AP Psychology > States of Consciousness > Flashcards

Flashcards in States of Consciousness Deck (79):
1

Name two things that we can do in a state of consciousness, while remaining aware that we are doing them. 

 

  1. evaluate the environment 
  2. filter information from the environment through the mind
 

2

While William James referred to consciousness as stream of thought, others, such as Robert Sternberg have deemed it a __________, created to help us adapt to the world and establish our personal identity.

 
 

mental reality

 
 

3

attention

 
 
 

state of focused awareness

 
 
 

4

What are the two important functions of consciousness?

 
 

  1. monitoring ourselves, our environment, and our relationship with the environment
  2. controlling role, planning responses to the information gathered about the environment
 
 

5

What are the lower levels of consciousness? 

 

  1. preconscious level
  2. subconscious level
  3. unconscious level
  4. nonconscious level
 

6

What kinds of information is stored in the preconscious level?

 

information that is available to consciousness, but is not always in consciousness

Preconscious information can be retrieved when needed; it is the storage site for many automatic behaviors. 

 

7

What information is stored at the subconscious level?

The subconscious stores information that we have been primed to but are not consciously aware of.

 

8

According to some psychologists, where do we store memories or information that are too difficult to process consciously? 

 

unconscious level

 

9

Which level of consciousness is devoted to processes, such as hormone secretion, that are completely inaccesible to conscious awareness?

 
 

nonconscious level

 
 

10

__________ describes the moving of anxiety-producing information from the conscious to subconscious; sometimes, however, this information is revealed through __________, in which we produce psychologically meaningful mistakes. 

 
 

Repression; freudian slips

 
 

11

Consciousness lies on a continuum, beginning at __________ and moving onto automatic processing.

 
 

controlled processing

 
 

12

The __________ controls our homeostatic functioning, which is evident in processes such as temperature regulation.

 
 
 

hypothalamus

 
 
 

13

Name three functionings that are controlled by the forebrain, reticular formation, and thalamus.

 

  1. wakefulness
  2. arousal
  3. attention
 

14

Name one mechanical task that could be characterized under automatic processing.

 

brushing your teeth

 

15

In consciousness, what is sleep, and what is it necessary for?

 

Sleep is an altered state of consciousness that is important for restorative processes.

 

16

What are two restorative functions of sleep?

 

  1. protein synthesis 
  2. maintaining plasticity of neural connections for storing and retrieving memories (consolidation)
 

17

What are four effects of sleep deprivation?

 

  1. drowsiness
  2. inability to concentrate
  3. memory impairment
  4. immune impairment
 

18

According to sleep research, three to four days without sleep can begin to induce what three symptoms? 

 

  1. hallucinations
  2. illusions
  3. paranoia 

Deprivation can also lead to other similar psychological disturbances.

 

19

When are debilitating symptoms of sleep-deprivation alleviated?

 

as soon as the subject is allowed to sleep again

 

20

What neurochemical is important in the role of sleep?

 

melatonin

 

21

What is the difference between circadian rhythms and free-running rhythms?

 

Circadian rhythm is the 24-hour day-to-night pattern that our body's physiological markers follow; free-running rhythm is the 25-hour rhythm that our bodies follow if all time cues (sunlight, clocks, etc.) are removed.  

 

22

What sort of disturbance is associated with the feelings of jet-lag?

 

Jet-lag results from disturbances to our circadian rhythms through external stimuli, like crossing time zones.

 

23

What does an electroencephalogram (EEG) measure, and why is this important?

 

EEGs measure brain-wave patterns that provide information of our brain's electrical activity in sleep cycles.

 

24

What is a hypnagogic sleep state?

 

 It is a semiwakeful state of dreamlike awareness with feelings of relaxation and failure to respond to stimuli.

 

25

In an EEG, __________ are shown when we are awake and focused on a task; when we shift into a more relaxed state, we see __________, and when we begin to fall asleep, we see __________. 

 
 

beta waves; alpha waves; theta waves

 
 

26

In what sleep stage do sleep spindles appear? 

 

stage 2

 

27

K complexes are large, slow waves that tend to break up what? 

 

sleep spindles

 

28

At what stage of sleep are the skeletal muscles relaxing? 

 

stage 2

 

29

What waves are most common in stages 3 and 4 or sleep (although a greater proportion occur in stage 4)?

 

delta waves

 

30

What is REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, and what is it typically associated with?

 
 

REM sleep is the last stage of sleep in which the eyes move vigorously; it is heavily associated with dreaming, although dreaming can occur in other stages as well.

 
 

31

What brain waves are predominantly present during REM sleep?

 

theta and beta waves

 

32

Why is REM sleep sometimes referred to as paradoxical sleep?

 

Our brain waves resemble those observed when we are awake, but we are asleep.

 

33

Approximately how long is each sleep cycle? 

 

90 minutes

 

34

As the period of sleep processes, what happens to stages 3 and 4, as compared with REM sleep?

Stages 3 and 4 diminish and eventually disappear as sleep progresses, while with REM stage gets longer

 

35

Why is it that we remember dreams occurring towards the end of sleep moreso than those towards the beginning?

 

As sleep progresses and REM gets longer, dreams are longer (approximately one hour); due to their proximity to an awakened state and their length, it is much easier to remember them than the shorter, distant dreams of earlier sleep. 

 

36

What theory of dreaming, proposed by McCarley and Hobson, claims that during sleep, the brain generates neuronal stimulation that the dreamer attempts to make sense of through creation of a story line? 

 

the activation-synthesis theory of dreams

 

37

What is the ability to be aware of and direct dreams?

 

lucid dreaming

 

38

What is REM rebound and who discovered it?

 

Discovered by William Dement, it is the idea that if we are deprived of REM sleep for one cycle and then allowed to sleep normally, our REM periods will increase.

 

39

What is insomnia? 

 

a lack of sleep (can be either an inability to fall asleep or an inability to maintain sleep)

 

40

Which of the following is not a known, possible cause of insomnia: stress, stimulants (like caffeine), hunger, alcohol.

 
 

hunger 

 
 

41

What is the defining characteristic of Narcolepsy? 

 

the inability to stay awake 

Narcoleptics experience irresistible urges to sleep at inappropriate times.

 

42

Narcoleptic sleep is primarily what kind of sleep?

 

REM sleep

 

43

What is sleep apnea? 

 

disorder in which a person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep

 

44

In adults, sleep apnea is associated with __________ and __________; in infants, it is associated with __________. 

 
 

obesity; alcohol consumption; SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)

 
 

45

What is sleepwalking and in what stages does it occur? 

 

characterized by walking (and perhaps also talking) during sleep; it occurs during stages 3 and 4 of sleep.

Sleepwalking is also known as somnambulism.

 

46

According to psychoanalytic theory, the story content of the dream, also known as the __________, offers important information about the unconscius processes.

 
 

manifest content

 
 

47

In contrast to the story of the dream, which offers insight into the symbols relating to the unconscious, the __________ discloses the actual underlying meaning of the dream.

 
 

latent content

 
 

48

According to the information-processing theory of dreaming, what do dreams provide? 

 

This theory suggests that our minds have an opportunity to process daily stress through dreams, since we spend more time in REM sleep during times of stress.

 

49

What three processes occur during dreams? 

 

  1. neural repair
  2. consolidation of memories
  3. protein synthesis
 

50

What is an elaborate, anxiety or fear-producing dream sequence? 

 

nightmare

 

51

What is the main difference between nightmares and night terrors, which involve behaviors such as screaming and crying?

 

nightmares generally occur during REM sleep, while night terrors occur in much deeper sleep states (perhaps overlapping with somnambulism)

 

52

What is the state of consciousness that is heavily associated with susceptibility to suggestion?

 
 

hypnosis

 
 

53

Some researchers believe that hypnosis is the process of a person "playing the part" of someone under hypnosis, rather than an altered state of consciousness. What is this theory called?

role theory

54

What does the state theory of hypnosis believe?

It suggests that, instead of fully altering states of consciousness, hypnosis allows people to focus more or less on certain parts of our consciousness, like pain awareness.

55

What was Ernest Hilgard's theory on hypnosis?

He hypothesized a choice to dissociate from certain parts of consciousness during hypnosis, called the dissociation theory.

56

What theory of hypnosis, related to the dissociation theory, postulates a dissociation of the mind into two parts: one obeys the hypnotist while the other observes? 

 
 

theory of the hidden observer

 
 

57

Which school of thought relies on hypnosis to extract memories that have been repressed?

 

psychoanalysis

 

58

What is the phenomenon through which we forget what happened during hypnosis?

posthypnotic amnesia

59

What is posthypnotic suggestion? 

 

instructions given to people while they are hypnotized that are meant to be implemented after they awake

 

60

What is defined by a set of techniques used to focus concentration away from thoughts and feelings to create calmness, tranquility, and inner peace?

 

meditation

 

61

Chemicals that can pass through the blood-brain barrier into the brain to alter perception, thinking, behavior, and mood are known as __________. 

 
 

psychoactive drugs 

 
 

62

What characterizes psychological dependence?

 

an intense desire to achieve the drugged state in spite of adverse effects

 

63

When does physiological dependence develop?

 

when changes in brain chemistry from taking a drug necessitate taking the drug again to prevent withdrawal symptoms

 

64

Although partly dependent on the environmental stimuli associated with taking the drug, __________ is characterized by decreased responsivity to a drug.

 
 

tolerance 

 
 

65

A desire to eat more while trying to quit smoking is an example of what?

a withdrawal symptom

66

What do agonists do?

Agonists act like specific neurotransmitters, copying their functions.

67

What does a chemical antagonist do?

It fits into the receptor site for a neurotransmitter so that the neurotransmitter itself is blocked.

68

Which classification of drugs, including sedatives like barbiturates and alcohol, reduces the activity of the central nervous system?

 

depressants

 

69

Which of the following is not a depressant: alcohol, nicotine, barbiturates, tranquilizers?

 
 

nicotine

 
 

70

Which depressant drug is important due to its ability to reduce anxiety without inducing sleep?

 

tranquilizers

 

71

Which depressant has its effects on the brain through decreasing dopamine levels?

 

alcohol

 

72

Which class of drugs, used to treat hyperactivity and narcolepsy, activates motivational centers while reducing inhibitory centers of the central nervous system?  

 
 

stimulants

 
 

73

What common stimulant can lead to insomnia?

 

caffeine

 

74

Name two behavioral effects of amphetamines.

 

  1. euphoria
  2. motor dysfunction (at high doses)
 

75

Which stimulant increases heart rate and blood pressure, and elicits feelings of increased abilities (both mental and social)?

 

cocaine

 

76

Although the physiological effects of this drug characterize it as a stimulant, it elicits both depressant behavioral effects (such as decreased appetite) and stimulant effects. What is this drug? 

 

nicotine

 

77

Name three effects of the narcotic class of drugs (which includes codeine, heroin, and morphine).

 

  1. feelings of euphoria
  2. pain relief
  3. induces sleep
 

78

What are three effects of the hallucinogenic class of drugs? 

 

  1. mood alteration
  2. perception distortion
  3. evoking sensory images in the absence of sensory input
 

79

What are some characteristics of opiates?

  • related to opium (derived from poppies)
  • endorphin agonists (kill pain and elevate mood)
  • most physically addictive type of drugs
  • examples include heroin, morphine, codeine