Pharm, Drugs of Abuse, part I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharm, Drugs of Abuse, part I Deck (53):
1

what type of drugs are naloxone and naltexone

opioid R antagonist

2

what type of drug is methadone

synthetic opioid

3

what type of drug is buprenorphine

partial mu opioid agonist

4

what type of drug is carenicline (chantix)

nicotinic R partial agonist

5

what type of drugs are oxazepam and lorazepam

benzos

6

what type of drug is Acamprosate

NMDA R antagonist

7

what type of drug is rimonabant

cannacinoid R agonist

8

what type of drug is rimonabant

cannabinoid R agonist

9

dependence

compulsive use of substance despite significant problems resulting from use

10

what must be met for substance dependent

3 criteria in 12 mo period
-preoccupation with use of chemical between periods of use
-need more than anticipated
- development of tolerance to chemical in question
- withdrawal Sx from chemical
- use chemical to avoid withdrawal Sx
-repeated efforts to cut back
-intoxication at inapprpraiate times
-reduction in social or recreational activities
-continued substance abuse in spite of associated problems

11

what are psychological withdrawal Sx

cravings
irritability
insomnia
depression
anorexia

12

physiological dependence

continuous drug administration to prevent withdrawal Sx

13

physiological dependence

continuous drug administration to prevent withdrawal Sx

14

withdrawal Sx of pshysiological dependence

anxiety, insomnia, CNS excitability that may progress into convulsions in case of sedative-hypnotics or ethanol

15

abuse

pattern of substance use leading to significant impairment in functioning
1 of the criteria for dependence present in 12 mo period

16

tolerance

dec in responsiveness to a drug following repeated exposure
dose response curve shifts to right
diazepam does this

17

sensitization

increase in response with repetition of same dose of drug
conditioning
dose response curve shits to L
cocaine does this

18

withdrawal

consist of adaptive changes that become fully apparent once drug exposure terminated
evidence of physical dependence
re-adaptation of CNS to absence of drug of dependence

19

example of withdrawal

decreased expression of GABAa R and increased expression NMDA R from chronic ethanol exposure causing hyperarousal of CNS during ethanol withdrawal

20

primary target of addictive drugs

mesolimbic DA system

21

mesolimbic DA system

originates VTA and projects to nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal Cx

22

activation of mesolimbic pathway causes

pleasure related effect

23

molecular targets in mesolimbic system

G couple R
ionotropic R
monoamine transporters

24

Drugs that activate GPCR

opioids
cannabinoids
GABA
LSD, mescaline, psilocybin

25

drugs that bind ionotropic R and ion channels

nicotine
alcohol
benzos
phencyclidine, ketamine

26

drugs that bind to transporters of biogenic amines

cocaine
amphetamine
ecstasy

27

MOA LSD, mescaline, psilocybin

partial agonist, serotonin GPCR

28

effects of GPCR acting drugs on dopamine neurons

disinhibition

29

nicotine is agonist where and cause what on dopamine neurons

nAChR
excitation

30

benzo effects on dopamine neurons

disinhibition

31

phencylidine. ketamine MOA

antagonist NMDA R

32

which drugs reverse transporter of NT

amphetamines and Ecstasy

33

Which drugs block DA uptake

cocaine
amphetamine
ecstasy

34

nonaddictive drugs target what

cortical and thalamic circuits
alter perception without causing sensations of reward and euphoria

35

tachyphylaxis

rapid tolerance

36

what suggests that LSD and hallucinogens are not addictive

animals do not self administer

37

other names for PCP and ketamine

angel dust, special K, hog

38

effects of PCP and ketamine

psychedelic effects for 1 hr
inc BP
impaired memory
disorientation
nystagmus
visual alterations

39

long term effects of non addictive drugs

PCP can lead to irreversible schizophrenia like psychosis
LSD cause flashbacks of altered perception years after consumption

40

opioids MOS

inhibit adenylyl cyclase disinhibit DA neurons

41

nalaxone MOA

pure opioid antagonist that reverses effects of a dose of opiates within minutes
provokes acute withdrawal syndrome in situations where dependent person has opiates in system

42

use methadone and buprenorphine

substitution therapy
tolerance and physical dependence develop more slowly
supervised intake
abrupt discontinuation precipitates withdrawal Sx

43

Why are endocannabinoids called retrograde messengers

bind presynaptic CB1 R and inhibit release of glutamate or GABA

44

exogenous cannabinoid THC

disinhibition of DA neurons by presynaptic inhibition of GABA neurons in VTA

45

effects of THC

euphoria, relaxation, feelings of well being, grandiosity, altered perception of passage of time

46

THC induce effects

increased appetite, attenuation of nausea, dec intraocular P, relief of chronic pain

47

chronic exposure to THC

dependence with mild and short lived withdrawal syndrome:
restlessness, irritability, mild agitation, insomnia, nausea, cramping

48

Dronabinol

FDA approved THC analog for anorexia and weight loss in AIDS patients and cancer-chemo induced nausea and vomiting

49

Nabilone

THC analog used for Tx of refractory nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemo and as adjunct in chronic pain management

50

GHB

produced during metabolism GABA
activates GABAb producing euphoria, enhanced sensory perceptions, feelings of social closeness and amnesia

51

other names for GHB

liquid ecstasy, date rape drug

52

higher dose GHB

hyperpolarizes DA neurons and inhibits DA release

53

GHB targets GABAb on what neurons

GABA(more sensitive) and dA neurons