Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (72)
Sympathetic adrenergic innervation of the airways is the dominant neuronal control of bronchial smooth muscle. True/False?
Parasympathetic cholinergic innervation dominates the airways
Stimulation of parasympathetic division causes bronchial smooth muscle _____, mediated by __ acting on __ receptors
Contraction, ACh, M3
Mucus secretion is increased when parasympathetic division is active. True/False?
There is no sympathetic innervation of bronchial smooth muscle. True/False?
What do postganglionic sympathetic fibres supply with regards to airways?
Smooth muscle of blood vessels
Stimulation of sympathetic division causes bronchial smooth muscle _____, mediated by __ released from the ___ ___ acting on __ receptors
Relaxation, adrenaline, adrenal gland, B2
Mucus secretion is increased when sympathetic division is active. True/False?
Mucus secretion decreases; mucociliary elevator activity increases
Asthma is irreversible obstruction of small airways. True/False?
It is reversible
What are the pathological changes that may occur in chronic asthma?
Increased mass of smooth muscle
Accumulation of interstitial fluid
Increased mucus secretion
FEV1 and PEFR increase in asthma sufferers. True/False?
They both decrease
What causes hypersensitivity of airways in asthma?
Epithelial damage, exposing sensory nerve endings
What are the 2 components of an asthma attack?
Initial bronchospasm followed by late inflammation
In non-atopic individuals, THo cells mature into TH_ cells
TH1 suppresses the production of which TH cell?
In atopic individuals, THo cells mature into TH_ cells
TH2 suppresses the production of which TH cell?
Which interleukin helps/allows TH2 cells to activate B cells?
Activated B cells can mature into plasma cells which secrete __ in the allergic response
IgE binds to eosinophils and mast cells via which receptor?
Which interleukin causes eosinophils to differentiate and activate?
Which interleukins cause mast cells to express IgE receptors?
IL-4 and IL-13
When mast cells are activated, which substances do they release?
Relievers act as anti-inflammatory agents. True/False?
They are bronchodilators used for acute attacks
Name the 3 main types of relievers used in asthma
SABAs, LABAs, CysLT antagonists
Name controllers/preventers used in asthma
What does PKA do in bronchial smooth muscle?
Phosphorylates MLCK and B2 receptors
MLCK's action is to cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle. True/False?
Action is to cause contraction; phosphorylation by PKA inhibits this action to cause relaxation
How does PKA cause desensitisation of B2 receptors?
Phosphorylates the receptor, causing reduced G-protein coupling
B2 receptor can be phosphorylated by PKA when no agonist is bound. True/False?