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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (72)
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1

Sympathetic adrenergic innervation of the airways is the dominant neuronal control of bronchial smooth muscle. True/False?

False
Parasympathetic cholinergic innervation dominates the airways

2

Stimulation of parasympathetic division causes bronchial smooth muscle _____, mediated by __ acting on __ receptors

Contraction, ACh, M3

3

Mucus secretion is increased when parasympathetic division is active. True/False?

True

4

There is no sympathetic innervation of bronchial smooth muscle. True/False?

True

5

What do postganglionic sympathetic fibres supply with regards to airways?

Submucosal glands
Smooth muscle of blood vessels

6

Stimulation of sympathetic division causes bronchial smooth muscle _____, mediated by __ released from the ___ ___ acting on __ receptors

Relaxation, adrenaline, adrenal gland, B2

7

Mucus secretion is increased when sympathetic division is active. True/False?

False
Mucus secretion decreases; mucociliary elevator activity increases

8

Asthma is irreversible obstruction of small airways. True/False?

False
It is reversible

9

What are the pathological changes that may occur in chronic asthma?

Increased mass of smooth muscle
Accumulation of interstitial fluid
Increased mucus secretion
Epithelial damage

10

FEV1 and PEFR increase in asthma sufferers. True/False?

False
They both decrease

11

What causes hypersensitivity of airways in asthma?

Epithelial damage, exposing sensory nerve endings

12

What are the 2 components of an asthma attack?

Initial bronchospasm followed by late inflammation

13

In non-atopic individuals, THo cells mature into TH_ cells

TH1

14

TH1 suppresses the production of which TH cell?

TH2

15

In atopic individuals, THo cells mature into TH_ cells

TH2

16

TH2 suppresses the production of which TH cell?

TH1

17

Which interleukin helps/allows TH2 cells to activate B cells?

IL-4

18

Activated B cells can mature into plasma cells which secrete __ in the allergic response

IgE

19

IgE binds to eosinophils and mast cells via which receptor?

FcE

20

Which interleukin causes eosinophils to differentiate and activate?

IL-5

21

Which interleukins cause mast cells to express IgE receptors?

IL-4 and IL-13

22

When mast cells are activated, which substances do they release?

Histamine
Chemokines
Leukotrienes

23

Relievers act as anti-inflammatory agents. True/False?

False
They are bronchodilators used for acute attacks

24

Name the 3 main types of relievers used in asthma

SABAs, LABAs, CysLT antagonists

25

Name controllers/preventers used in asthma

Glucocorticoids, chromoglicate

26

What does PKA do in bronchial smooth muscle?

Phosphorylates MLCK and B2 receptors

27

MLCK's action is to cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle. True/False?

False
Action is to cause contraction; phosphorylation by PKA inhibits this action to cause relaxation

28

How does PKA cause desensitisation of B2 receptors?

Phosphorylates the receptor, causing reduced G-protein coupling

29

B2 receptor can be phosphorylated by PKA when no agonist is bound. True/False?

True

30

How does GRK cause endocytosis of B2 receptors?

Phosphorylates the receptor, allowing B-arrestin to bind and "arrest" the receptor's signalling function and cause endocytosis