What 2 conditions is COPD comprised of?
Emphysema + Chronic bronchitis
ain’t nobody got time fo dat
What is chronic bronchitis?
Chronic neutrophilic inflammation in the bronchi/bronchioles, causing mucus hypersecretion and bronchospasms
What is emphysema?
Alveolar collapse, leading to impaired gas exchange
COPD patients have a productive cough, progressive breathlessness and frequent infective exacerbations. True/False?
What is an epidemiological definition of chronic bronchitis?
Cough + sputum on most days for at least 3 months of 2 successive years
What is meant by centriacinar emphysema?
Emphysema affecting proximal respiratory bronchioles; alveolar ducts + sacs remain in tact
What is meant by panacinar emphysema?
Emphysema affecting terminal bronchioles; destruction of whole alveolus
Describe how cor pulmonale (pulmonary heart failure) arises due to emphysema
Decreased gas exchange leads to decreased PaO2, which causes pulmonary vasoconstriction, increasing pressure in pulmonary arteries and thus the right side of the heart
Emphysema is common in people who are deficient of which antiprotease?
How does tobacco smoke affect the lung?
Increases no. of neutrophils and macrophages
What are the 4 main symptoms of COPD?
What is the average % bronchodilator response in COPD?
Less than 15%
Outline treatment for mild to severe COPD
SAMA + LAMA + LABA (moderate)
+ ICS (severe frequent exacerbations)
Outline treatment for acute exacerbation of COPD
Ipratropium neb Salbutamol neb Oxygen (24%) Antibiotics if purulent sputum Prednisolone oral