Pharmacology Test Four Flashcards Preview

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When the heart is unable to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the body's metabolic needs

Heart failure

1

The amount of blood pumped by each ventricle each minute

Cardiac output

2

The amount of blood that fills the heart just before systole

Preload

3

The pressure in the aorta that must be overcome in order for the heart to eject blood

After load

4

Signs and symptoms of heart failure are

Shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, edema in legs ankles and feet, rapid or irregular heartbeat, reduced ability to exercise, persistent cough of wheezing with white or pink blood tinged phlegm, swelling of your abdomen, sudden weight gain from fluid retention, lack of appetite and nausea, difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness

5

Digoxin (Lanoxin) is classified as

Cardiac glycoside

6

Action of Digoxin (Lanoxin)

Increases force of myocardial contraction, decreases heart rate. Inhibits sodium and increases calcium in cells.

7

Side/adverse effects of Digoxin (Lanoxin)

Side: anorexia, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting
Adverse: bradycardia, visual disturbances with high levels known as yellow vision

8

Teaching for Digoxin (Lanoxin)

Contraindicated in pts with electrolyte imbalances, pts should be taught to use same brand, need frequent blood monitoring. Nurses do not give to someone with an apical pulse of less than 60 bpm. Teach pts to take pulse daily.

9

Digoxin immune fab (Digibind) is used for what

Treat digoxin toxicity

10

Dobutamine (Dobutrex) is classified as

Cardiac glycoside

11

Dobutamine (Dobutrex) acts how

Decreases preload and after load and enhances myocardial contractility

12

Side/adverse effects for Dobutamine (Dobutrex)

Side: increased heart rate, increased blood pressure
Adverse: may increase heart rate too much and cause angina

13

Nursing for Dobutamine (Dobutrex)

Monitor pts heart rate, take frequent vitals

14

Milrinone (Primacor) is classified as

Cardiac glycoside

15

Action of Milrinone (Primacor)

Relaxes vascular smooth muscle and causes vasodilation

16

What is a normal digoxin level?

0.5 to 2.0 ng/mL

17

Chest pain that originates for heart when it doesn't get enough blood. Warning sign that something is wrong with heart.

Angina

18

Tissue death that occurs when blood supply decreases to part if heart

Infarction

19

Nitroglycerin (Nitro-Bid) is classified as

Anti-anginal

20

Action for nitroglycerin (Nitro-Bid)

Dilates coronary arteries, improves collateral blood flow, dilates some systemic veins and arteries, decreases preload

21

Side/adverse effects for nitroglycerin (nitro-bid)

Side: headache, dizziness, syncope, contact dermatitis, sublingual tablet does burn
Adverse: orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia, tolerance may lead to dose increase, severe headaches

22

Nursing for nitroglycerin (nitro-bid)

Do not use if pt has hypotension, monitor vitals, pt should lie own when taking drug for first time, if using patches on chest do not defibrillate since patches can explode

23

Isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil) is classified as

Nitrate, anti-anginal

24

Action of Isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil)

Relaxes smooth muscles of arteries and veins, decreases preload and after load

25

Side/adverse effects for Isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil)

Side: headache, orthostatic hypotension, burning with sublingual

26

Teaching for Isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil)

Assess chest, assess blood pressure, be careful ambulating pt

27

Ranolazine (Ranexa) is classified as

Sodium current inhibitor, anti-anginal, anti-ischemic

28

Action for Ranolazine (Ranexa)

Inhibits sodium currents

29

Side/Adverse effects for Ranolazine (Ranexa)

Side: dizziness, headache
Adverse: in overdose pts get confused