Pharmacology Test Six Flashcards Preview

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Crucial immune cells that play a role in immune response

CD4 cells

1

Test to measure the status of a persons immune system

Viral load

2

Virus that is composed of RNA that has an enzyme, called reverse transcriptase, that gives them the unique property of transcribing their RNA into DNA after entering a cell. The retroviral DNA can then integrate into the chromosomal DNA of the host cell, to be expressed there.

Retrovirus

3

Retrovirus that causes AIDs by infecting Helper T cells of immune system

HIV

4

Severe immunological disorder caused by HIV, resulting in a defect in cell-mediated immune response that is manifested by increased susceptibility to opportunistic unctions and to certain rare cancers. Transmitted by exposure to body fluids.

AIDs

5

What are the goals of antiretrovirus therapy?

Suppress viral replication to slow the decline in the number of CD4 cells
suppress viral replication to undetectable levels
reduce the incidence and severity of opportunistic infections minimize adverse effects of antiretrovirus therapy
improve quality-of-life
improve survival and reduce morbidity

6

Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) is classified as

Viral entry blocker

7

Action of Fuzeon

Interferes with entry of HIV, injected subcutaneously and must be reconstituted

8

Side effects of Fuzeon

Side: local injection reactions, pain, itching, redness, diarrhea,nausea, fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, decreased appetite
adverse: bacterial pneumonia, renal failure

9

Nursing for Fuzeon

Teach patient how to administer, baseline labs should be completed before starting, offer emotional support, report any injection reactions, report cough, patient must understand it's not a cure

10

Zidovuldine (ZDV, AZT, Retrovir) classified as

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)

11

Action of Retrovir

Inhibits viral enzyme reverse transcriptase that is necessary for viral replication

12

Side effects for Retrovir

Side: nausea, headache, loss of strength and energy
adverse: anemia especially in first 4 to 6 weeks
black box: for severe anemia, enlarged liver death with long-term use, pregnancy category C

13

Nursing for Retrovir

Monitor blood cell counts, report bleeding, watch for signs of infection, make sure patient knows it's not a cure

14

Delavirdine (Rescriptor) is classified as

NNRTI

15

Action of Rescriptor

Competes with binding of the reverse transcriptase enzyme at the active site, has a low pill burden

16

Side effects for Rescriptor

Side: rash, itching
adverse: liver failure,anemia

17

Nursing for Rescriptor

Baseline with labs, not a cure

18

Raltegravir (Isentress) is classified as

Integrae inhibitor

19

Action of Isentress

Inhibits the insertion of HIV DNA into human DNA, used when resistance occurs

20

Side effects for Isentress

Side: diarrhea. nausea, headache
adverse: anemia, hepatitis, renal failure

21

Nursing for Isentress

Assess for G.I. discomfort, baseline labs, observe for cough

22

Ritonavir (Norvir) is classified as

PI, antiretroviral

23

Action of Norvir

At the end of the HIV lifecycle to inhibit the production of viruses

24

Side effects for Norvir

Side: nausea, vomiting, can alter taste
adverse: hepatitis, allergies

25

Nursing for Norvir

Medicine must be refrigerated and protected from light, should be evenly spaced and taken on time daily, can be mixed with other fluids to improve taste

26

What is the nurses role when administering HIV and AIDS related drugs?

On going assessment, analysis, education. Monitor adherence. Be aware of clinical trials. assess for and prevent opportunistic infections

27

What is PEP?

Postexposure prophylaxis: worker becomes exposed percutaneous of mucous membranes or non-intact skin usually two drugs started within hours of event, usually continued four weeks cause, fatigue and weakness, nausea

28

Administration of small amount of antigen not capable of stimulating an immune response

Vaccination

29

Live weakened microorganisms put in vaccines

Attenuated viruses