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Flashcards in Phonetics Deck (42):
1

Explain 'segmentation'

Dividing the continuum of a chain of sounds into small, recurrent elements

2

Define 'phone'

Speech sound

3

List the main characteristics of vowels

Air stream can pass from the lungs through the mouth across central part of tongue, without obstruction

Has central function in the syllable

4

List the main characteristics of consonants

Obstruction in airstream from lungs through mouth

Marginal function in syllable

5

List the semi-vowels / approximants and their characteristics

[w]
[j]
> Consonantal position
> phonetically: vowel glide

6

Explain pulmonic and non-pulmonic phones

pulmonic
Lungs involved in producing air stream

non-pulmonic
Lungs not involved in producing air stream

7

Explain egressive and non-egressive phones

egressive
Air stream is pushed out of lungs

non-egressive
Produced while breathing in

8

Explain voiced and voiceless phones

voiceless
Air passes vocal cords without modification

voiced
Air vibrates when passing vocal cords

9

Name the distinctive features of /m/

nasal, bilabial, voiced

10

Name the distinctive features of /v/

labio dental, fricative, voiced

11

Name the distinctive features used to describe consonants

manner of articulation
place of articulation
voiced / voiceless

12

List the parts of the vocal tract

Cavities
Pharyngeal cavity
Oral cavity
Nasal cavity

Articulators
lips
teeth
tongue (blade, tip, front, back, root)
alveolar ridge
palate (> hard palate and soft palate / Velum)
uvula (huig)

Other
epiglottis (strotklepje)
esophagus (food passage)
trachea (wind pipe)
larynx (strottenhoofd)
vocal cords

13

List the places of articulation and what part of the mouth is involved

bilabial
lips

labio-dental
lower lip
upper teeth

dental
tongue
upper teeth

alveolar
tip and rims of tongue
upper alveolar ridge
side teeth

post-alveolar
tip, blade and rims of tongue
rear part of upper alveolar ridge

velar
tongue
soft palate

glottal
vocal cords

14

List the manners of articulation

plosive / stop
fricative
affricate
lateral
approximant
nasal

15

Name the bilabial consonants

[ph] [p] [b] [m]

16

Name the labio-dental consonants

[f] [v]

17

Name the dental consonants

[θ] [ð]

18

Name the alveolar consonants

[th] [t] [d] [s] [z] [n] [l]

19

Name the post-alveolar consonants

[r]

20

Name the palato-alveolar consonants

[ʃ] [ʒ] [tʃ] [dʒ]

21

Name the velar consonants

[kh] [k] [g] [ŋ]

22

Name the glottal consonants

[ʔ] [h]

23

Name the plosive consonants

[ph] [p] [th] [t] [kh] [k] [ʔ] [b] [d] [g]

24

Name the fricative consonants

[f] [v] [θ] [ð] [s] [z] [ʃ] [ʒ] [h]

25

Name the affricate consonants

[tʃ] [dʒ]

26

Name the lateral consonants

[l]

27

Nam the approximant consonants

[r] [w] [j]

28

Name the nasal consonants

[n] [m] [ŋ]

29

Explain what determines the articulation of plosive consonants

Articulatory organs form obstruction; air stream is held up; sudden release of air

30

Explain what determines the articulation of fricative consonants

Articulatory organs brought so close together that friction of air steam occurs

31

Explain what determines the articulation of affricate consonants

Plosive with friction during release stage

32

Explain what determines the articulation of lateral consonants

Partial closure so that air stream can escape on one or both sides of obstruction

33

Explain what determines the articulation of approximant consonants

Contraction of tongue; air stream can escape without friction

34

Explain what determines the articulation of nasal consonants

Air stream released through nose; articulatory organs form obstruction

35

Explain aspiration

a short airstream follows the articulation

36

Name the three aspects used to describe vowels

place of the highest point of the tongue
degree of lip rounding
length

37

Explain the difference between monophthongs, diphthongs and triphthongs

monophthongs
no change in quality of vowel sound over duration

diphthongs
involving glide from one position to another

triphthongs
involving a glide from one position to another and then yet another

38

List the diphthongs

closing sounds
[eɪ] in say
[aʊ] in now
[aɪ] in hi
[ɔɪ] in boy

centring sounds
[ɪə] in here
[ea] in air
[ʊə] in sure

39

What are cardinal vowels?

idealized realizations of vowel qualities
> system of cardinal vowels serves as reference grid for exact description of vowels in real languages

40

Name the three parts of a syllable and the class of phonemes they consist of

onset > consonant(s)
peak > vowel
coda > consonant(s)

NOTE
Syllabic [l̩] and [n̩] can function as peak (little, button)

41

Explain the difference between open and closed syllables

Open syllables
end in a vowel sound (buoy, sea)

Closed syllables
contain coda (boys, girl)

42

Name some suprasegmental elements

stress
> primary
> secondary

pitch change
> falling
> rising
> falling-rising
> rising reinforcement of a falling tone

intonation
> variations and direction of pitch

accent
> type of stress

rhythm
> stress timed
> syllable timed