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Flashcards in Phonology Deck (29):
1

Which of the following pairs are minimal pairs:
son - ton
blood - blöd
think - sink
blame - blade
nose - knows
whale - wail
wail - wall
wall - whale

Minimal pairs:
son - ton
think - sink
blame - blade
wail - wall
wall - whale

NOT Minimal pairs:
blood - blöd > different languages!
nose - knows > same transcription
whale - wail > same transcription

2

Define phoneme

abstract linguistic unit at the level of sound, serving to distinguish between linguistic forms with different meanings
> Doesn’t carry meaning, distinguishes meaning

3

Define allophone

one of several phonetic realizations of a phoneme in the form of a phone

4

Explain complementary distribution and give an example

set of allophones, of which each can only occur in a position where the other cannot occur

Allophones of English phonemes /p/ /t/ /k/
> [ph] [th] [kh] (peach, teach, key)
> [p] [t] [k] (speak, respect)

5

Explain minimal pairs

linguistic forms with different meanings which are phonetically identical with the exception of one sound
> teach – reach, hand – band, sun – fun

6

list the distinctive features of /p/

plosive, bilabial, voiceless

7

list the distinctive features of /b/

plosive, bilabial, voiced

8

list the distinctive features of /t/

plosive, alveolar, voiceless

9

list the distinctive features of /d/

plosive, alveolar, voiced

10

list the distinctive features of /k/

plosive, velar, voiceless

11

list the distinctive features of /g/

plosive, velar, voiced

12

list the distinctive features of /tʃ/

affricate, palato-alveolar, voiceless

13

list the distinctive features of /dʒ/

affricate, palato-alveolar, voiced

14

list the distinctive features of /f/

fricative, labio-dental, voiceless

15

list the distinctive features of /v/

fricative, labio-dental, voiced

16

list the distinctive features of /ð/

fricative, dental, voiced

17

list the distinctive features of /θ/

fricative, dental, voiceless

18

list the distinctive features of /s/

fricative, alveolar, voiceless

19

list the distinctive features of /z/

fricative, alveolar, voiced

20

list the distinctive features of /ʃ/

fricative, palato-alveolar, voiceless

21

list the distinctive features of /ʒ/

fricative, palato-alveolar, voiced

22

list the distinctive features of /h/

fricative, glottal, voiced

23

list the distinctive features of /m/

nasal, bilabial, voiced

24

list the distinctive features of /n/

nasal, alveolar, voiced

25

list the distinctive features of /ŋ/

nasal, velar, voiced

26

list the distinctive features of /l/

lateral (approximant), alveolar, voiced

27

list the distinctive features of /r/

approximant, post-alveolar, voiced

28

list the distinctive features of /j/

approximant, palatal, voiced

29

list the distinctive features of /w/

approximant, bilabial, voiced