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Flashcards in Syntax (CGEL) Deck (32):
1

Determine the subject in the following sentence:
'The extraordinary Take That revival has taken everyone by surprise.'

The extraordinary Take That revival

2

Analyse the following sentence at the first functional level:
'BAA said the weather outlook for the next few days was positive.'

Subject: BAA
Verb: said
Direct Object: the weather outlook for the next few days was positive

3

Determine the verb (1st functional level) in the following sentence:
'We have been adding flights as and where we can.'

have been adding

4

Determine on the first functional level what 'last night' in the following sentence is:
'Heathrow airport opened both runways last night.'

Adverbial

5

Determine on the first functional level what 'earthquakes of the same magnitude' in the following sentence is:
'This general region has had earthquakes of the same magnitude in the past.'

direct object

6

Analyse the following sentence at the first functional level:
'The 1975 Helsinki Declaration gave neutral and nonaligned countries a more active role.'

Subject: The 1975 Helsinki Declaration
Verb: gave
Indirect Object: neutral and nonaligned countries
Direct Object: a more active role

7

Analyse the following sentence at the first functional level:
'The notion that pirates only plundered gold, silver and exotic treasure is unfounded.'

Subject: The notion that pirates only plundered gold, silver and exotic treasure
Verb: is
Subject Complement: unfounded

8

Analyse the following sentence at the first functional level:
'People considered Anne Bonny intelligent, attractive, and quick tempered.'

Subject: People
Verb: considered
Direct Object: Anne Bonny
Object Complement: intelligent, attractive, and quick tempered

9

Analyse the following sentence at the first functional level:
'Pirates rarely kept record of their activities.'

Subject: Pirates
Adverbial: rarely
Verb: kept
Direct Object: record of their activities

10

Analyse the following sentence at the first functional level:
'The early afternoon train had just begun its journey.'

Subject: The early afternoon train
Verb: had begun
Adverbial: just
Direct Object: its journey

11

Analyse the following sentence at the first functional level:
'Last Christmas I gave you my heart.'

Adverbial: Last Christmas
Subject: I
Verb: gave
Indirect Object: you
Direct Object: my heart

12

Analyse the following sentence at the first functional and first formal level:
'The man bought a very nice hat at Heathrow.'

Subject: The man > NP
Verb: bought > VP
Direct Object: a very nice hat > NP
Adverbial: at Heathrow > PP

13

Analyse 'a very nice hat' in the following sentence up to word class level:
'The man bought a very nice hat at Heathrow.'

1st functional
Direct Object

1st formal
NP

2nd functional
a determinative
very nice premodifier
hat head

2nd formal
a determiner
very nice Adj.P.
hat noun

3rd functional
very premodifier
nice head

3rd formal
very adverb
nice adjective

14

Analyse 'When he was in London' in the following sentence up to word class level:
'When he was in London, the man bought a very nice hat at Heathrow.'

functional
Adverbial

formal
wh-clause

functional
When conjunction
he Subject
was Verb
in London Adverbial

formal
he NP
was VP
in London PP

functional
he head
was main verb
in preposition
London prepositional complement

formal
he pronoun
was primary verb
London NP

functional
London head

formal
London noun

15

Determine what type of clause 'that I saw' is in:
'The movie that I saw.'

relative clause

16

Determine what type of clause 'that I saw' is in:
'He said that it was fine.'

that-clause

17

Analyse the following sentence at the first functional and first formal level:
'He's eaten a whole plate of French fries.'

He Subject > NP
has eaten Verb > VP
a whole plate of French fries Direct Object > NP

18

Analyse 'a whole plate of French fries' in the following sentence up to word class level:
'He's eaten a whole plate of French fries.'

functional
Direct Object

formal
NP

functional
a determinative
whole premodifier
plate head
of French fries postmodifier

formal
a determiner
whole adj.
plate noun
of French fries PP

functional
of preposition
French fries prepositional complement

formal > functional > formal
French fries NP > head > noun

19

Analyse the following sentence at the first functional and first formal level:
'Do you really think the whole grisly affair was just an accident?'

Do
Verb > VP

you
Subject > NP

really
Adverbial > Adv.P.

think
Verb > VP

the whole grisly affair was just an accident
Direct Object > (that-) clause

20

Analyse 'the whole grisly affair was just an accident' in the following sentence up to the second formal level:
'Do you really think the whole grisly affair was just an accident?'

first functional level
Direct Object

first formal level
(that-) clause

second functional level
the whole grisly affair > Subject
was > Verb
just > Adverbial
an accident > Subject Complement

second formal level
the whole grisly affair > NP
was > VP
just > Adv.P
an accident > NP

21

Analyse 'the whole grisly affair' in the following sentence up from the second functional level up to word class level:
'Do you really think the whole grisly affair was just an accident?'

second functional level
the whole grisly affair > Subject

second formal level
the whole grisly affair > NP

functional
the > determinative
whole > premod
grisly > premod
affair > head

formal
the > determiner
whole > Adj.P.
grisly > Adj.P
affair > NP

functional / formal
whole > head / adj.
grisly > head / adj.
affair > head / noun

22

Determine what 'any more pleasant' is on the first functional level in the following sentence:
'Knowing all this doesn't make me any more pleasant.'

Object Complement

23

Analyse the following sentence at the first functional and first formal level:
'She hastily dried her eyes to see.'

She > Subject > NP
hastily > Adverbial > Adv.P.
dried > Verb > VP
her eyes > Direct Object > NP
to see > Adverbial > to-infinitive-clause

24

'I hate to see you unhappy.'

I > Subject > NP
hate > Verb > VP
to see you unhappy > Direct Object > to-infinitive-clause

25

Explain the difference between finite and non-finite verbs

finite verbs change due to changes in person, number, aspect, tense

non-finite verbs do not change due to changes in person, number, aspect, tense

26

List the characteristics of adjectives

- attributive use
- predicative use
- pre-modification by adverbs
- comparative & superlative use
> criteria do not apply to all adjectives alike!

27

Analyse the following sentence at the first functional and first formal level:
The woman he admired was a professor.

the woman he admired > Subject > NP
was > Verb > VP
a professor > Subject Complement > NP

28

Explain the difference between adjectives and adverbs

adjectives describe nouns and pronouns

adverbs describe verbs, adjectives and adverbs

29

List the clause constituents

subject

predicate
> contains verb and statements referring to subject

adjunct
> optional, structurally dispensable

30

Define commutation

relation between subject / predicate and elements they can be exchanged for

31

Define the options to classify verbs

intransitive
requires no object

transitive
> monotransitive > requires one object
> ditransitive > requires two objects
> complex transitive > requires two objects / object & object complement

copular
requires object complement

32

List the modal and primary verbs

modal
can, must, will, would, may, shall, could, might, should
> no suffixation by {S}
> no participle form

primary
be, have, do