Word Formation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Word Formation Deck (64):
1

Name the word formation process in:
unkind

prefixation

2

Name the word formation process in:
edit

backformation
(from editor)

3

Name the word formation process in:
car park

compounding

4

Name the word formation process in:
transistor

blending
(from transfer and resistor)

5

Name the word formation process in:
tick-tock

reduplicative

6

Name the word formation process in:
photo

clipping

7

Name the word formation process in:
brake

conversion
(verb to noun)

8

Name the word formation process in:
chewing gum

compounding

9

Name the word formation process in:
CIDE

acronymisation

10

Name the word formation process in:
boyish

suffixation

11

Name the word formation process in:
to baby-sit

backformation
(from babysitter, which is a compound)

12

Name the word formation process in:
IRA

abbreviation

13

Name the word formation process in:
motel

blending

14

Name the word formation process in:
haircut

compounding

15

Name the word formation process in:
love

conversion
(verb to noun)

16

Name the word formation process in:
flu

clipping

17

Name the word formation process in:
to can

conversion
(noun to verb)

18

Name the word formation process in:
heliport

blending

19

Name the word formation process in:
tv

abbreviation

20

Name the word formation process in:
GM

abbreviation
(OR: General+Motors > compounding)

21

Name the word formation process in:
to text

1) compounding (text + message)
2) clipping (text)
3) conversion (noun to verb)

22

Name the word formation process in:
explanation

suffixation
(explain + ation)
vowel change!

23

Name the word formation process in:
NATO

acronymisation

24

Name the word formation process in:
air-strikes

compounding
(OR blending)

25

Name the word formation process in:
filmmaker

compounding
(film + maker)
OR
suffixation
(+er)

26

Name the word formation process in:
unconvincingly

suffixation (2x)
prefixation
vowel change

27

Name the word formation process in:
re-Fedexed

compounding
(federal + express)
blending / clipping
conversion
(noun to verb)
prefixation
(re-)

28

Name the word formation process in:
to face

conversion
(noun to verb)

29

Name the word formation process in:
reaction

suffixation and prefixation

30

Name the word formation process in:
snowman

compounding

31

Name the word formation process in:
car park

compounding

32

Name the word formation process in:
unkind

prefixation

33

Name the word formation process in:
unfair

prefixation

34

Name the word formation process in:
employment

suffixation

35

Name the word formation process in:
derivation

suffixation

36

Name the word formation process in:
cycle

conversion

37

Name the word formation process in:
leap

conversion

38

Name the word formation process in:
to aircondition

back-formation

39

Name the word formation process in:
gas

clipping

40

Name the word formation process in:
telly

clipping and familiarity marker

41

Name the word formation process in:
brunch

blending

42

Name the word formation process in:
StudOn

blending

43

Name the word formation process in:
NATO

acronymisation

44

Name the word formation process in:
ZDF

abbreviation

45

Name the word formation process in:
ARD

abbreviation

46

Name the word formation process in:
nitty-gritty

reduplicatives

47

Explain the difference between token and type

token
every single word

type
every type of word

48

Define lexeme

fundamental abstract unit of the lexicon of the language
> mouse, fire extinguisher
> resists interrupton
> family of lexical units
> lexical form > inflection!

49

Explain the difference between word forms and lexical units

word forms
representations of the same lexeme
> mouse, mice

lexical units
possible meanings of a lexeme
> animal, computer device (mouses!), shy person

50

List the forms of lexical innovation

neologism
invention of new lexical items

transfer of meaning
derivation of new senses of established words

combining / modifying existing lexical material

> abbreviatory function of lexical innovation
> word as lexical element has concept defining role

51

List the types of word formation

compounding
affixation
conversion
back-formation
clipping
blending
acronymisation
abbreviation
reduplicatives

52

Define compounding

combining two constituents
e.g. breadwinner, art gallery

53

Define affixation

prefixation
combining two constituents so that a bound morpheme (prefix) precedes the second constituent
> change of word class

suffixation
combining two constituents so that a bound morpheme (suffix) follows the first constituent

54

Define conversion

new word formed without any formal change (work V > N)
> zero-derivation: addition of zero-morpheme
> change of word class

55

Define back-formation

taking off a sequence of phonemes resembling a suffix from an existing word
e.g. laze, burgle, televise
> change of word class

56

Define clipping

shortening polysyllabic word
e.g. ad, demo, phone

57

Define blending

word from two existing words by maintaining elements of both constituents
e.g. heliport, smog, brunch

58

Define acronymisation

initial letters of words of compound, pronounced as one word
e.g. NATO
> acronym

59

Define abbreviation

initial letters of words of compound, pronounced separately
e.g. PhD, U.N.

60

Name an example of reduplicatives

see-saw, wishy-washy

61

Define familiarity marker

making a word shorter and adding an affix
e.g. telly, comfy
> usually combined with clipping

62

List the possible restrictions to productive word formation

phonological
e.g. {-ish} does not combine with /ʃ/ or /tʃ/

morphological
e.g. {-ness} cannot be followed by another suffix

semantic
e.g. {-ess} only for human begins or higher animals

etymological
e.g. {in-} / {dis-} only with adjectives of Romance origin

63

Explain nonce formation

word that has been formed and used by a speaker only once

64

Explain the difference between lexicalization and institutionalisation

institutionalisation (established)
known and used by large number of speakers

lexicalization
word formation that can no longer be fully related to the underlying word formation process