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Flashcards in Semantics Deck (36):
1

How do 'bank' (financial institute) and 'bank' (river bank) relate to each other?

homonymy

2

How do 'ear' (organ) and 'ear' (top of grain) relate to each other?

homonymy

3

How do 'press' (equipment) and 'press' (media) relate to each other?

polysemy

4

How do 'royalty' (royal person) and 'royalty' (payment) relate to each other?

polysemy

5

Explain the difference between a homophone and a homograph

homophone: identical in phonological form
> sound the same

homograph: identical in spelling
> are written the same

6

How do 'wail' and 'whale' relate to each other?

homophones

7

How do 'dear' (beloved) and 'dear' (expensive) relate to each other?

polysemy

8

How do 'enter' and 'go in' relate to each other?

synonyms

9

How do 'tall' and 'short' relate to each other?

antonyms

10

How do 'dead' and 'alive' relate to each other?

complementarity

11

How do 'pupil' and 'teacher' relate to each other?

converseness

12

How do 'wind' and 'to wind' relate to each other?

homophones

13

How do 'tree' and 'oak' relate to each other?

hyponyms

14

How do 'oak' and 'birch' relate to each other?

co-hyponyms

15

How do 'vehicle' and 'train' relate to each other?

hyponyms

16

How do 'parent' and 'child' relate to each other?

converseness

17

How do 'cheap' and 'expensive' relate to each other?

antonyms

18

How do 'buy' and 'sell' relate to each other?

converseness

19

How do 'see' and 'sea' relate to each other?

homophones

20

How do 'coarse' and 'course' relate to each other?

homophones

21

How do 'zero' and 'love' relate to each other? (tennis!)

synonyms

22

How do 'light' and 'dark' relate to each other?

antonyms

23

How do 'husband' and 'wife' relate to each other?

converseness

24

How do 'tulip' and 'flower' relate to each other?

hyponyms

25

How do 'pupil' (eye) and 'pupil' (student) relate to each other?

polysemy

26

How do 'autumn' and 'fall' relate to each other?

synonyms

27

How do 'write' and 'right' relate to each other?

homophones

28

How do 'seal' (animal) and 'seal' (mark) relate to each other?

homonymy

29

How do 'mouse' (computer) and 'mouse' (animal) relate to each other?

polysemy

30

Explain the difference between denotation and reference

denotation
relationship between linguistic sign and denotatum
> NO concrete speech situation

denotatum
entities of extralinguistic world > abstract possibilities, potential

reference
relationship between referring expression and referent(s)
> ONLY in concrete speech situation

referring expression
> phrase

referent(s)
> particular / specific member of denotatum

31

Explain connotation

- Associations beyond its (denotative or conceptual) meaning
- Arise form properties of (elements of) the denotatum
- Not necessarily shared by whole speech community > vary considerably

32

Explain the difference between polysemy and homonymy

Polysemy
lexeme has more than one lexical unit
> one lexeme that has developed multiple meanings

Homonymy
multiple lexemes with identical forms
> two separate lexemes that have developed the same form

33

Define the elements of hyponymy

hyponym
> subordinate (cat in cat – animal)

hyperonym
> superordinate (animal in cat – animal)

co-hyponyms
> hyponyms of the same hyperonyms

34

Explain the difference between antonyms, complementaries and converseness

Antonyms
> gradable
> degrees of variable property
> move in opposite directions when intensified
> range of values in between
> marked vs unmarked

Complementaries
> exhaustively divide domain into two mutually exclusive compartments

Converseness
> express same relation, from different perspectives

35

Explain entailment

proposition P entails proposition Q when truth of Q is logically necessary consequence of truth of P
> hyponomy
> synonymy

36

Explain componential analysis

analysing meanings in terms of semantic components, gained through contrasting meanings of lexical units

conditions
- atomic
- recurrent
- binary
- universal