Phonology Flashcards Preview

Linguistics > Phonology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Phonology Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...
1

Phonology

-concerned with how the sounds are represented and stored in the brain
-studies their abstract mental representations
-grammar of sounds, our implicit knowledge of sound structure

2

Goals of phonology

1.determine what phonological knowledge is like
2.How sounds are stored + represented in brain
3.How mental representations result in systematic phonetic variation in speech,
o at the level of segments or suprasegmentals;
o within a given language and across languages.
-phonological knowledge deals with representations at various levels:
-Word level, syllable level, segment level, and feature level.

3

Phonological contrasts

-Some segments in a language contrast with each other, while others don’t.
-alveolar fricatives [s] and [z] in English are contrastive, because substituting [z] for [s] and vice versa changes the word meaning

4

minimal pairs

-forms have distinct meanings, yet differ only in
one segment ([s] or [z])

5

phonemes

Segments that contrast with each other in a given language
-part of our phonological knowledge; they are represented in the brain
-Not all sounds pronounced in a language need to be stored in the brain

6

allophones

-Predictable variants
-we have clear intuitions about phonemes of the language (because we store them in the brain), but not about allophones (because we do not store them, but produce automatically when we speak)

7

levels of representation

phonemic representation
phonetic representation

8

phonemic transcription

contrastive segments only
-/ /

9

phonetic transcription

non-contrastive, allophonic detail
-[ ]

10

complementary distribution

Segments that occur in different, non-overlapping environments

11

Phonological analysis

-determine the phonemic status of segments in a given language: Are they separate phonemes or allophones of a phoneme?

12

steps of Phonological analysis

-Determine the environments which they occur
-State your generalizations about the environments:
Are the environments in which the segments occur the same/overlapping/are they completely different?
-Conclude whether separate phonemes/allophones. need to be phonetically similar for allophones
-If allophones, determine which allophone is the basic one(elsewhere). basic allophone is assumed to be phoneme

13

Environments

-Linear order relation: after x (voiceless consonants), before x, betw. x and y, word initially/word finally
-Higher level than segments: position in the syllable
-If same or overlapping, segments are separate phonemes. (You are done.)
o If environments completely different, segments are likely to be allophones of a phoneme

14

logical possibilities

Two phonemes,
One phoneme, /A/,[A] env. x [B] env. y
One phoneme, /B/ [A] env. x [B] env. y

15

near-minimal pairs

two sounds occur in nearly identical environments (and the word meaning is different)

16

Allophonic variation

usually systematic, based on segments’ phonetic properties

17

class

Phonemes that are similar phonetically tend to pattern together, as a class
generalization pattern together

18

rules

formal statements about how phonemes of UR converted to allophones of PR

19

derivation

rule application
-applies when in right context
-doesn't apply if does not have the right context (we say that the rule is not applicable here)
-should be sufficiently general, should capture generalizations about segments affected by processes or triggering these processes

20

Rule format

-which segment/class of segments is/are affected (the undergoer of the process),
-how it is or they are affected (what changes into what) and
-in which particular context (the environment)

21

rule format

-undergoer should include all the segments that undergo the change + exclude the segments that do not undergo it
-environment should include all segments/other contexts that trigger change
-change should specify what segment property has changed without mentioning properties that haven't changed

22

prose rule format

What (undergoer of the process) becomes what when/where

23

natural classes

Groups of segments that commonly pattern together
based on articulatory properties the segments share

24

Major classes

consonant/vowel, sonorant/obstruent, syllabic/non-syllabic

25

Consonants classes

oLaryngeal (glottal) states: voiced/voiceless, aspirated, murmured;
oManner: nasal/oral, stop, fricative, affricate, lateral, liquid, glide;
oPlace of articulation:-labial: biliabial, labiodental
-coronal: dental, alveolar, alveopalatal, palatal
-dorsal: velar, uvular;
-glottal

26

Vowel classes

oMajor types: simple vowel, diphthong
oHeight: high, mid, low
oBackness: front, central, back
oRounding: rounded/unrounded
oTenseness: tense/lax
oLength: long/short
oOther: nasalized, retroflexed, reduced, devoiced

27

syllable

-Many allophonic processes refer to the syllable structure.
-Rhyming in poetry
-Language games often refer to the internal structure of the syllable

28

syllable structure

 nucleus (N): the peak of the syllable
 onset (O): the syllabic unit before the nucleus
 coda (Co): the syllabic unit after the nucleus
 rhyme (R): the nucleus and coda together

29

Universality of the syllable

-All languages have syllables.
-have the syllable types of V and CV, with CVC

30

Phonotactics

-refers to constraints on what segments can go into -Onset, Nucleus, and Coda, and in what order
-Combinations of consonants primarily depend on the manner of articulation, thus sonority
More sonorous consonants (glides, liquids, and nasals) tend to occur closer to the nucleus
some languages have onset or coda clusters that violate sonority