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Flashcards in Morphology Deck (39)
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1

Morphology

deals with the structure of words

2

Free Form

elements that do not have to occur in a fixed position with respect to neighbouring elements, and (in many cases) can appear in isolation
-dinosaurs

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Morphemes

-smallest unit in language that carries information about lexical or grammatical meaning
-reactivate: re-, act, -iv, -ate

4

Simple words

-monomorphemic, consisting of a single morpheme

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Complex words

-polymorphemic, consisting of two or more morphemes

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Morpheme types

-Free vs. bound
-Root vs. affix:morpheme’s position within word
-Derivational vs. inflectional

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Free vs. bound

-refer to the morpheme’s ability to occur on its own
-free morpheme: can be a word by itself.
-A bound morpheme: must be attached to another element.

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Root

-core, necessary element of a word.
-Free: English morphemes do, treat, and happy in re-do, treat-ment, un-happy.
-Bound: e.g. Japanese arui-

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Derivational vs. inflectional

refer to the morpheme’s function within the word

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Base

-part to which an affix attaches

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Affixes

-Affix(es): (optional) all the other morphemes in the word; affixes are always bound morphemes
-Prefix: an affix that attaches to the front of the base (re-do).
-Suffix: an affix that attaches to the end of the base (act-iv-ate).
-Infix: an affix that occurs within another morpheme. (bili-binili)

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Decomposing words into morphemes

-subtract the outermost morpheme and check whether the rest of the form exists as a word having the same/related meaning

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Derivation

-uses affixes to form words distinct from their bases in meaning and/or grammatical categories
-nation - nation-al - national-ity.
-noun adjective noun

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Parts of speech

-N = noun (the ___, a/an ___ ).
-V = verb (agree with the subject with respect to gender/number/person, etc.).
-A = adjective (modify N, be/look/feel/sound__ ).
-Adv = adverb (modify V, modify A, modify sentence).
-P = preposition ( __ N; in, on, with, during, etc.).

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Inflection

-modifies a word’s form to mark some grammatical information (as opposed to the lexical meaning). It is most often expressed by affixation
-the books, He reads well, the smaller one

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Inflectional affixation

-English inflection is marked by suffixation
-can express a range of grammatical meanings:
-Number, Gender, Person, Tense, and Case.
-Note, however, that inflection is not the only way to express grammatical meaning

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Number

-expresses contrasts for countable quantities.
-The categories of Singular, Dual, and Plural.

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Gender

-expresses contrasts in noun classes.
-categories of Masculine, Feminine, Neuter.
-Depending on the gender of the noun, other words agree in gender.

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Person

-expresses contrasts between the speaker, the addressee, and anyone else referred to in the sentence.
-First Person (speaker(s)), Second Person (addressee(s)), Third Person (anyone else).
-English 1st: I, me, we, us; 2nd: you; 3rd: he, she, it, they, them

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Tense

-expresses the time of an event/state in reference to the speech moment.
-Past, Present, and Future
-Progressive (continuation), Perfect (completion)
-Progressive: He is eating an apple.
-Perfect: He has eaten

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Case

-expresses the role of words in sentences:
-Subject, Object, Possessive/Genitive, etc.

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Internal change

-grammatical contrasts are indicated by substitution of segments within a root/stem
-sing-sang, drive-drove, foot-feet

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Suppletion

-grammatical contrasts are indicated by replacing morphemes with phonologically unrelated ones
-go-went, good-better/best

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Reduplication

-grammatical contrasts are indicated by repeating all or part of the base
-lakad-lalakad

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Tonal change

-grammatical contrasts are indicated by changing tone

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Inflectional affixes

-add to the lexical meaning expressed by the root (express grammatical function)

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Derivational affixes

-change the lexical meaning expressed by the root (and usually change its part of speech too)
-sensitive to the lexical category of its base

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Derivation of words

Not all affixes can attach directly to the root

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Word trees

show the internal structure of words

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Drawing morphological trees

-At the top:part of speech of the whole constituent
-For the roots: part of speech
-For affixes, X-Y, where X is the part of speech that the affix attaches to and Y is the part
of speech that the affixation leads to