Flashcards in Morphology Deck (39)
deals with the structure of words
elements that do not have to occur in a fixed position with respect to neighbouring elements, and (in many cases) can appear in isolation
-smallest unit in language that carries information about lexical or grammatical meaning
-reactivate: re-, act, -iv, -ate
-monomorphemic, consisting of a single morpheme
-polymorphemic, consisting of two or more morphemes
-Free vs. bound
-Root vs. affix:morpheme’s position within word
-Derivational vs. inflectional
Free vs. bound
-refer to the morpheme’s ability to occur on its own
-free morpheme: can be a word by itself.
-A bound morpheme: must be attached to another element.
-core, necessary element of a word.
-Free: English morphemes do, treat, and happy in re-do, treat-ment, un-happy.
-Bound: e.g. Japanese arui-
Derivational vs. inflectional
refer to the morpheme’s function within the word
-part to which an affix attaches
-Affix(es): (optional) all the other morphemes in the word; affixes are always bound morphemes
-Prefix: an affix that attaches to the front of the base (re-do).
-Suffix: an affix that attaches to the end of the base (act-iv-ate).
-Infix: an affix that occurs within another morpheme. (bili-binili)
Decomposing words into morphemes
-subtract the outermost morpheme and check whether the rest of the form exists as a word having the same/related meaning
-uses affixes to form words distinct from their bases in meaning and/or grammatical categories
-nation - nation-al - national-ity.
-noun adjective noun
Parts of speech
-N = noun (the ___, a/an ___ ).
-V = verb (agree with the subject with respect to gender/number/person, etc.).
-A = adjective (modify N, be/look/feel/sound__ ).
-Adv = adverb (modify V, modify A, modify sentence).
-P = preposition ( __ N; in, on, with, during, etc.).
-modifies a word’s form to mark some grammatical information (as opposed to the lexical meaning). It is most often expressed by affixation
-the books, He reads well, the smaller one
-English inflection is marked by suffixation
-can express a range of grammatical meanings:
-Number, Gender, Person, Tense, and Case.
-Note, however, that inflection is not the only way to express grammatical meaning
-expresses contrasts for countable quantities.
-The categories of Singular, Dual, and Plural.
-expresses contrasts in noun classes.
-categories of Masculine, Feminine, Neuter.
-Depending on the gender of the noun, other words agree in gender.
-expresses contrasts between the speaker, the addressee, and anyone else referred to in the sentence.
-First Person (speaker(s)), Second Person (addressee(s)), Third Person (anyone else).
-English 1st: I, me, we, us; 2nd: you; 3rd: he, she, it, they, them
-expresses the time of an event/state in reference to the speech moment.
-Past, Present, and Future
-Progressive (continuation), Perfect (completion)
-Progressive: He is eating an apple.
-Perfect: He has eaten
-expresses the role of words in sentences:
-Subject, Object, Possessive/Genitive, etc.
-grammatical contrasts are indicated by substitution of segments within a root/stem
-sing-sang, drive-drove, foot-feet
-grammatical contrasts are indicated by replacing morphemes with phonologically unrelated ones
-grammatical contrasts are indicated by repeating all or part of the base
-grammatical contrasts are indicated by changing tone
-add to the lexical meaning expressed by the root (express grammatical function)
-change the lexical meaning expressed by the root (and usually change its part of speech too)
-sensitive to the lexical category of its base
Derivation of words
Not all affixes can attach directly to the root
show the internal structure of words