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Flashcards in Phonetics Deck (65)
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1

Acoustic Signal

sound wave traveling through the air

2

Speech Comprehension

-perception
-listener has to decode continuous acoustic signal as a sequence of discrete consonants and vowels
-sequence of sounds needs to be further associated with the meaning, activating an internal mental representation for the object

3

Phonetics

-how speech sounds (phones) are produced by speakers (articulatory phonetics), realized acoustically (acoustic phonetics), and perceived by listeners (auditory phonetics)

4

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

one-to-one correspondence between a sound (segment or phone) and a symbol
-[ ]: phonetic transcription

5

Segment

[u]
individual speech sound

6

Vocal organs

-lungs: the source of air;
-larynx (and vocal folds): the sound source
-vocal tract: filtering

7

Glottal States

-configurations of the vocal folds
-voiceless/voiced
-murmur/breathy voiced: vocal folds loosely+slowly vibrating; glottis not fully closed;
-whisper: front portions of folds are pulled close together

8

Voiced/Voiceless

Voiceless: vocal folds widely pulled apart
Voiced: folds pulled close together and open repeatedly (vibration) regularly due to air passing between the folds

9

Vocal Tract

-air passages above the vocal folds
-the pharynx, oral cavity, nasal cavity
-Modifications of airflow creates different sounds.

10

Articulators

-parts of the vocal tract, can be used to form speech sounds.
-lower articulator articulates against an upper articulator.

11

Upper/Passive articulators

-The upper lip, teeth, surface of the mouth:
-alveolar ridge
-hard palate
-soft palate/velum
-uvula
-pharyngeal wall

12

Alveolar Ridge

-small protuberance just behind the upper teeth

13

Hard Palate

-bony structure of the front part of the roof of the mouth

14

Soft Palate/Velum

-muscular flap at the back of the mouth

15

Uvula

-small appendage hanging down at the lower end of the velum

16

Lower/Active articulators

-The lower lip, the lower teeth, the tongue
-Nasal cavity: velum is lowered adding nasal resonances to the speech

17

Tongue

large muscular organ: the tip, blade, body, back (dorsum), root

18

Consonants

-made with major obstruction in the vocal tract
-less sonorous
-can be syllabic

19

Vowels + Glides

-made with relatively little obstruction
-more sonorous, air is moving more freely
-vowels form nucleus of syllable

20

Consonant Articulation

1) voicing (glottal state),
2) place of articulation
3) manner of articulation

21

Place of articulation

-where in the vocal tract + what articulators make the constriction
-labial, dental, alveolar, alveopalatal/palatal, velar, labio-velar, uvular, pharyngeal, glottal

22

labial: bilabial/labiodental

-2 lips together/lips to teeth
-pie, by, my, five, vibe

23

Dental/Interdental

-tongue to teeth/between
-thigh, that

24

Alveolar

-tongue right behind teeth
-die, tie, sigh, lie, rye

25

Alveopalatal/Palatal

-front tongue raised
-shy, child, jive
-palatal: yikes

26

Velar

-bunched up and back
-kite, guy

27

Labio-Velar

-round lips and tongue raised to velum
-wide, why

28

Glottal

-produced in the larynx
-howl

29

Manner of articulation

-way the constriction is made or its degree
-Oral, nasal, stops, fricatives, affricates, liquids, glides

30

Stridents/Sibilants

-sounds that produce, hissing/hushing