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Flashcards in Introduction to Linguistics Deck (11)
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1

Linguistics

-scientific study of language
-observe verifiable facts about human languages,
-figure out important regularities,
-describe human languages,
-explain the facts and regularities in their structure
-descriptive, not prescriptive

2

Language

-method of communication through speech, writing and signing
-specific to our species
-natural (natural language).
-evolves unconsciously.
-subject to change over time
-arbitrary relation between signifier and signified

3

Language creativity

-languages are creative, productive.
-We can generate and understand infinite number of novel sentences and expressions without former experience with them

4

Grammar

-set of structural principles, rules and constraints that constitutes a language.

5

Linguistic competence

-knowledge that a speaker of a language has to tell about the grammaticality of utterances of the language

6

Phonological competence

Knowledge of possible/impossible combinations of sounds

7

Morphological competence

Knowledge of possible/impossible composition of words

8

Syntactic competence

Knowledge of possible/impossible sequence of words in a sentence

9

Semantic competence

Knowledge of possible/impossible meaning (i.e., interpretations) of sentences

10

Generative Grammar

develop a fully explicit and complete theory of grammar to account for the knowledge that a speaker of a language has

11

i-language

language as a mental capacity, or a system in the mind of a speaker
capture what is grammatical in the language + explain what is not grammatical