Physiology- hormones and glands Flashcards Preview

BOARDS Part 1 > Physiology- hormones and glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology- hormones and glands Deck (46):
1

_____ gland produces melatonin

pineal gland

2

7 hormones produced by the adenohypophysis

(anterior pituitary)
1. ACTH
2. FSH
3. GH
4. LH
5. MSH
6. Prolactin
7. TSH

3

2 hormones that are produced by the neurophypophysis

(posterior pituitary)
1. ADH/ vasopressin
2. Oxytocin

4

Name the function of the two hormones produced by the posterior pituitary

1. ADH/ vasopressin: Controls H2O balance

2. Oxytocin: uterus contraction, milk let down

5

cc: defiency/ excess of ADH?

defiency: diabetes insipidus
excess: conn's sx

6

ACTH:
Target organ?
Effect?
Excess?
Deficiency?

Target organ: Adrenal cortex--> zona fasciculata
Effect: gluconeogenesis when under stress/ not eating

Excess: cushing (excess cortisol)
Deficiency: Addison's

7

FSH:
Target organ?
Effect?

Deficiency?

Target organ: Ovary/ testes
Effect:
(f): release primary follicles, release estrogen
(m): stim spermatogenesis

Deficiency: infertility

8

the hormone Inhibin is produces by ___ in females and ___ in males

(f): corpus leiteum

(m): sertoli cells

9

What hormones stops the production of FSH

inhibin

(f): corpus leiteum

(m): sertoli cells

10

GH:
Target organ?
Effect?
Excess?
Deficiency?

Target organ: all tiss (except cart)
Effect: Burns fat
Excess: gigantism, acromegaly
Deficiency: dwarfism

11

_____ is the growth hormone for cartilage

somatomedin

(GH is the growth hormone for everything else)

12

LH:
Target organ?
Effect?
Excess?
Deficiency?

Target organ: Ovary / testes
Effect: (f) ovulation, forms corpus leuteum
(m): testosterone

Excess: forms corpus leuteum when up
Deficiency" degenerates corpus leuteum when down

13

MSH:
Target organ?
Effect?
Excess?
Deficiency?

Target organ: melanocytes

Effect: basement layer of the epidermis--> stim by UV light

Excess: hyperpigmentation
Deficiency: albinism

14

Prolactin:
Target organ?
Effect?

Target organ: mammaries
Effect: makes milk

15

Thyroid stimulating hormone:
Target organ?
Effect?
Excess?
Deficiency?

Target organ: thyroid follicular cells
Effect: T3, T4, and maintains BMR
Excess: Graves
Deficiency: myxedema, cretinism, (AI) Hashimotos

16

Parathyroid hormone:
effect?
Excess?

effect: takes Ca+ out of the bone, decr phosphorus in the bl.

excess: kidney stones, osteopenia, Brown's tumor, rugger jersey spine, salt & pepper skull

17

Calcitonin hormone:
gland?
effects?
excess?

gland: parafollicular cells of the thyroid

effects: puts Ca+ back into the bone, incr phosphorus in the bl.

excess: Tetany

18

If Ca+ is low--> the N. will ___ causing ___

the nerve wil depolarize causing tetany

19

What horm. is produced:
zona glomerulosa:____
zona fasciculata: _____
zona reticularis: ______

zona glomerulosa: aldosterone
zona fasciculata: Cortisol (stim by ACTH)
zona reticularis: Sex hormones

"salt", "sugar", "sex"

20

embryological derivatives:
Adrenal cortex:___
adrenal Medulla: ____

Adrenal cortex: mesoderm
adrenal Medulla: neural crest

21

____ cells in the adrenal medulla secrete NE & EN

chromaffin cells

22

5 steps of the menstral cycle

1. 0 day: release estrogen, primary follicle
2. estrogen: thinkens endometrial lining "proliferation phase", peaks on 14th day to release LH

3. LH: day 14, ovulation, forms corpus leuteum

4. Corpus leuteum: makes progestrone "secretory phase", makes inhibin--> stops FSH

5. corpus leuteum: either dies or makes progesterone in the presence of HCG

6. HCG: make by placenta, stimulates the corpus leuteum to make progesterone

23

____ horm stimulates the corpus leuteum to make progesterone--> the corpus leuteum proliferates

HCG

24

Males:
_____ hormone starts spermatogenesis
_____ hormone releases testosterone
_____ hormone matures sperm

FSH: hormone starts spermatogenesis
LH: hormone releases testosterone
Testosterone: hormone matures sperm

25

____ breaks down starch in the mouth
____ breaks down fat in the mouth

starch: ptyalin
fat: sublingual lipase

26

___ cells produce pepsinogen

___ converts pepsinogen into pepsin

Chief/ peptic cells

HCL: converts pepsinogen into pepsin

27

_____ cells produce HCL and intrinsic factor

Parietal / oxynitic cells

28

pyloic glands give rise to ____ hormone that produces gastrin

fxn of gastrin:____

gastric cells

fxn of gastrin: incr gastric secretions, motility and mucous

29

_____ glands are mucous secreting glands in the duodenum

Brunner's gland

30

Secretin triggers ___ & ___ t be secreted by the pancreas

1. Bicarbonate: buffers acid in the stomach
2. Water

31

CCK causes the production of what 4 enzymes

CCK inhibits the production of:

stimulates the production of:
1. pancreatic amylase
2. Pancreatic lipase
3. Trypsinogen: breaks down protein
4. stim the release of bile

Inhibits:
1. Gastrin
2. closes the pyloric sphincter in the stomach

32

____ hormone causes the GB to release bile

CCK

33

___ glands absorb fat into the lymphatic system

lacteal glands

34

2 hormones that close the pyloric sphincter to close in response to fat

1. CCK
2. Enterogastrone

35

____ enzyme converts trypsinogen into trypsin to break down protein

this actives what 3 proteolytic enzymes?

Enterokinase

3 proteolytic enzymes:
1. chymotrypsinogen: breaks polypeptides
2. proteolastase: digest elastin fiber
3. carboxypolypeptidase: break into AA

36

_____ enzyme that protects the pancrease from being broken down by trypsin

trypsin inhibitor

37

_____ enzyme breaks down polysaccharides into disaccharides

Pancreatic amylase

38

CC: a decrease in I.F. will cause: _____

pernicious anemia--> megablastic anemia

39

R & L liver lobe is separated by ___ lig --> that turns into the _____ lig

separated by: falciform lig

free portion: round lig (aka ligamentum teres)

40

R + L hepatic duct --> _____ duct

_____ + ______ --> Common bile duct

_____+______--> ampulla of vater

empties into the ____ duodenum

R + L hepatic duct --> Common hepatic duct

Cystic duct from GB + common hepatic --> common bile duct

Common bile duct+ pancreatic duct = ampulla of vater

empties into the 2nd part of the duodenum

41

The pancreas is supplied by the ___ artery

It is a branch of the ____ trunk

supplied by the splenic artery

branch of the celiac trunk

42

4 causes of edema

1. incr venous pressure (CHF)
2. Decr protein in bl. = decr oncotic/ osmotic pressure

3. myxedema= hypothyroidism
4. anaphylaxis: type I = histamine release

43

_____V +_____ V --> portal V

portal v drains into the liver

____ drain into central V --> heptaic V drains into the ____

Superior mesenteric v + splenic V = portal V

Liver sinusoids drain into the central v --> hepatic V into the IVC

44

4 hormones that decr appetite

1. leptin: fat cells --> shuts off hypothalmus

2. Peptide YY: from intestines

3. Somatostatin: from pancreas

4. Serotonin: argentaffin cells of the stomach

45

Somatostatin:
inhibits ____ & ___- in the pancreas
inhbits: ____ stomach
inhibits:____ stomach

somatostatin:
inhibits: insulin and glucagons in pancreas
inhibits: gastrin in stomach
inhibits: rennin in stomach

46

3 hormones that incr appetite

1. Ghrelin
2. Neuropeptide Y
3. adiponectin