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Flashcards in SA- Osteology Deck (77):
1

Name of the wt. bearing portion of bone

cortical (aka compact)

2

______ contains the fat and bl forming tissue of bone (located in the center of the bone)

Trabeculae

3

Trabeculae is within the _____ bone

Cancellous (aka spongy/ medullary)

4

______ separates the epiphysis and the diaphysis

Epiphyseal plate
(where growth takes place)

5

_____: the part of the diaphysis that lies adjacent to the epiphyseal plate

metaphysis

6

Short bones are : ____- & _____

carpals and tarsels

7

Name the 5 flat bones in the bd

ribs
sternum
calvarium of the skull
scapula
clavicle

8

_____bones develop within M tendons

sesmoids (ex: patella)

9

Give 3 ex. of irregular bones

Vert.
some bones of the skull
pelvic bone

10

How many bones in the adult axial skeleton

80

11

How many bones in the vert. COLUMN

26
( column includes: occyx and sacrum)

12

How many bones in the appendicular skeleton

126

13

How many bones in the LE vs. UE

LE: 62
UE: 64
total: 126

14

How many bones in the spine

24
(only consists of TRUE vert)

15

Children have __#__ vert. segments

33

16

There are _#__ disc in the spine

23

17

There are __#___ disc in the spinal column

24

18

How are disc named?

As the same number of the vert. above it

19

Smallest and thinnest disc are located in the ___ spine.

Largest and thickest disc are located in the ___ spine

Small: C/S

Lg: L/S

20

Disc form ___ jts

amphiarthrodic

21

___ & ___ form secondary curves

secondary curves are also known as: ___

C/S and L/S

aka: compensatory curves

22

___ & ___ form primary curves

primary curves are also known as:____

T/S and sacrum

aka: accomodating curves (accomodate organs)

23

The superior and inferior notch of the IVF are formed by what vertebral structure?

pedicles

24

IVF is the smallest in the ___ region
IVF is the largest in the ___ region

smallest: C/S
Largest: L/S

25

ht. of the male spinal column ___cm (___ in)
Ht. of the female spinal column __cm (__in)

males: 71 cm (28 in)
Females: 61 cm (24 in)

26

name the "typical" vert

C/S: C3-C6
T/S: T2-T8
L/s: L1-L4

27

name the anterior landmarks based on the vert:
C3: ___
C4/C5:___
C6:___
C5/C6/C7:____

C3: hyoid
C4/C5: thyroid cartilage
C6: cricoid cartilage
C5/C6/C7: Thyroid gland

28

name the anterior landmarks based on the vert:
T2: ___
T4/ T5:___
T9:____
T10:___
L4: ____

T2: jugular notch (suprasternal notch)
T4/ T5: sternal angle of Lewis (jxn of the 2nd rib)
T9: jxn of sternum and xiphoid
T10: xiphoid
L4: umbilicus

29

T___ is the level at the base/root of the spine of the scap when prone

T___ is the level when standing

T3: prone

T4: standing

30

T___ is the level of the inf. angle of the scap when prone

T___ is the level of the inf. angle of the scap when standing

T6: prone

T7: standing

31

___ & ___ form the vert. arch

laminae and pedicles

32

_____ is the only vert. that does not possess the characteristics of a typical vert. = therefore Atypical to the entire spine

Atlas

33

another name for axis

epistroheus

34

_____ canal refers to the vertebral canal before birth

neural canal

35

the anterior portion of the vert. bd. has small holes for ____ into the vert. bd

the posterior region of the bd. has lg holes for the ____ to drain the vert. body

anterior: nutrient art.

post: basivertebral V

36

_____: rings of compact bone that surround the vert. body. Important for compressive forces

vert. endplates

37

cc: congenital shortening of the pedicles leads to : ______

pedicogenic stenosis

38

cc: congenital elongation of the pedicles leads to: _____

spondylolisthesis

39

______: formed by the jxn of the superior AP and the inferior AP

zygopophyses

(the jt that is formed btw two adjacent facets)

(diarthrotic)

40

________: the formation caused by the superior surface of the C/S vert projecting upward on the lateral sides

fxn:_____

Location:____

Uncinate processes

fxn: prevent lateral displacement

location: C3-C7

41

Location of anterior/inferior lipping
C___-C___

C2-C6

42

uncinate processes form the joint of ______

Location: C__ -C__

Joint of Von Luschka

location: C2/C3-C6/C7

43

Location of bifid SP's

C2-C6

44

the TP's in the C/S are located ____ to the TP

Anterior

(T/S- L/S: posterior)

45

he hole in the C/S TP:__________

transverse foramen

46

________ is termed the True Transverse Process in the C/S

the posterior portion of the TP

(ends as the posterior tubercle)

47

The anterior portion of the C/S TP is called ____

Costal Process

(posterior portion is the True TP)

(anterior + posterior = the costotransverse Lamella)

48

In what location of the spine is the vert. foramen triangular

cervical and lumbar

49

typical T/S (T__-T__) have ___ demifacets

T2-T8: 4 demifacets

50

T___ has 1 pair of full facets and 1pair of Demifacets

T1

51

How many full/ demifacets does T9 have

1 pair of demifacets

52

How many full/ demifacets does T10-12 have

one pair of full facets

53

Costotransverse Facets are located on the T/S ____ and are the articulation of the ___ of the ribs

located: TP

articulation: tubercle of the rib

54

The AP's of the T/S are faced: ___

posterior/lateral

55

there are ____ articulations on a typical T/S

12

4: on the AP
4: demifacets
2: costotransverse facets
2: IVD

56

L ___ & L __ : have TPs that arise more ant. from the jxn of the bd and pedicles

(instead of pedicles and lamina)

L4/L5

57

____: for the articulation of the dens on C2

fovea dentalis

58

The superior and inferior vert groove on C1 is for the passage of what structures

superior groove: vert. art + C1 spinal N

Inf groove: C2 spinal N

59

The transverse lig (of the alar lig) is attached to the _____

median tubercle

(prevents posterior displacement)

60

What structures is located in the anterior portion and the posterior portion of C1?

the space is divided by the ____ lig

anterior: odontoid

posterior: SC

divided by: transverse lig

61

the superior articular facet of the sacrum is in what plane?

coronal plane (frontal)

62

the Ala of the sacrum is equivalent to what vert. structure?

TP of S1

63

name the equivalencey of each of these structures in the sacrum to other vert. structure:
1. Sacral tubercles=
2. Sacral groove=
3. Intermediate sacral crest=
4. Lateral sacral crest =

1. Sacral tubercles= SP
2. Sacral groove= Laminae
3. Intermediate sacral crest= articular process
4. Lateral sacral crest = TP

64

How many sacral foramen are there?

2 rows of 4 = 8 foramen

65

What nerves exit the sacral hiatus

S5 and Co1

66

spinal N's in the C/S exit anterior to the IVF except for :

C1 and C2 = exit posteriorly

67

superior articulating facets of the C/S are ___ degrees off the horizontal axis with ____ rotation

45 degrees off horizontal
No rotation

68

What segments in the C/S have the greatest ROM

C4-C6

69

major motion of the C/S

Flexion and Extension

70

In flexion the inferior articulating facets move ___ and ____ in the C/S

anterior and superior

71

In extension the inferior articulating facets move ___ and ____ in the C/S

Posterior and inferior

72

superior articulating facets of the T/S are ___ degrees off the horizontal axis with ____ rotation

60 degrees off horizontal
20 degrees outward (lateral) rotation

73

Major motion of the T/S

rotation

74

superior articulating facets of the L/S are ___ degrees off the horizontal axis with ____ rotation

90 degrees off the horizontal
45 degrees inward (medial) rotation

75

Major motion of the L/S

Flexion and Extension

76

zygopophyseal joint are ___ jts

diarthrotic (synovial)

77

_____: is a defect in the pars interarticularis

spondylolysis