Flashcards in Physiology Test 1 Deck (178):
How many cells in the human body?
75 - 100 trillion
What are two types of cell death?
2. Cell necrosis
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death(planned), occurs all the time, naturally(i.e. webs between our fingers before birth)
What is cell necrosis?
Unplanned abnormal death of the cell, occurs from lack of blood supply and oxygen for example ischemia and necrosis
What is the major organization of a cell?
Nucleus and the cytoplasm
What cells are not reproduced?
Neurons,They are not replaced.
What is water used for in the cell?
Medium for substances to be dissolved or suspended and for chemical reactions
What is water used for in the cell?
Medium for substances to be dissolved or suspended and for chemical reactions, water must be kept in a very narrow range as if not it can cause cell death
What two types of proteins are found in cells?
What are the two types of intracellur electrolytes?
1. Cations:(+ charge) POTASSIUM is a monovalent(meaning it carries 1 positive charge) it is the most abundant intracellular cation. Magnesium, calcium, sodium, if too much calcium accumulates in the cell it can cause cell death, low levels of calcium and sodium inside the cell
2. Anions:(- charge) inorganate phosphate is the most abundant intracellular anion, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate
these 3 usually monovalent
What are three types of lipids found in the cell?
The plasma membrane is also known as what?
The cell membrane
What are two forms of carbohydrates in the cells?
1. Glucose-neuron likes to use glucose for their energy source
2. Glycogen- storage form of glucose(major source of stored glycogen is in the hepatacytes of the liver)
What type of membrane is the cell membrane?
a phospholipid bilayer
What is the description of the "head" of the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane(3)?
1. Its polar, meaning it has negative and positive charged areas(nitrogen, organic phosphorus)
2. its hydrophilic, meaning it has a strong affinity for water
3. it contains organic phosphate(its not an electrolyte)
What is the description of the "tails" of the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane?
1. two tails, containing fatty acids(carbon, hydrogen), they are lipid tails
2. non polar, meaning it has equally distributed charges not accumulated in one pole or the other
3. its hydrophobic, meaning it has no affinity with water
What are peripheral proteins?
proteins that don't transverse the entire cell membrane
What are intrinsic(integral) proteins?
proteins that transverse the entire cell membrane
What are the two types of proteins in the cell membrane?
1. Intrinsic proteins
2. peripheral proteins
A cell function is dependent upon what?
The type, function or number of specific organelles within the cell
What are the levels of physiology?
1. Human Organism
7. Proteins, lipids, carbs and or combinations
10. Electrons, Protons, Neutrons
Humans are indivisible inseparable within four parts, what are they? What affects one of them affects them all.
The cell membrane separates what?
The intracellular compartment from the extracellular compartment
Collectively the part of the cell between the cell membrane and the nuclear membrane is called?
The substances as a unit that make up a cell is called the?
What is the function of structural proteins?
They provide structure and support for the cell, for example the cytoskeleton
What are two examples of globular proteins?
2. some transport proteins that are a part of the cell membrane
What some examples of fluids found extracellular?
What is a phospholipid bilayer?
cells that form the cell membrane in two layers
Organelles within the cell are surrounded by?
unilayer or bilayer phospholipids, separates the organelle from the rest of the cytoplasm
What are functions of the Intrinsic proteins(5)?
1. Protein channels allowing passage in and out of cell
2. Transport proteins in and out of the cell(binding sites)
3. Cell membrane-bound receptors
4. Cell markers
What are the functions/characteristics of peripheral proteins(3)?
1. either point toward inside or outside
3. often attached to and regulate intrinsic proteins or carry out messages as directed by intrinsic proteins
What are glycoproteins?
Carbohydrate chains that extend out of the cell membrane are attached to a protein
What are glycolipids?
Carbohydrate chains that extend out of the cell membrane and are attached to a fatty acid tail(lipid)
What is the glycocalyx
formed on the outside of the cell made up of glycoproteins and glycolipids that provide and outer support structure. Often the glycocalyx between cells are attached, causing the cells to be attached together
What is a ligund?
A chemical signal that may or may not be able to bind to the receptor site on the receptor protein of a cell. Hormones use this procedure...matching ligund to the receptor site
What is a cell surface marker?
A glycoprotein or glycolipid useful in allowing the immune system identifying normal cells from foreign cells, when WBC identify good cells they let them pass, when they see a bacterial, cancer of fungi(for example) they attack them
What separates the nucleus form the rest of the cell?
the nuclear envelope
What type of membrane makes up the nuclear envelope?
two separate phospholipid bilayer membranes with a matrix(space) between the two membranes
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
it is where the nuclear envelope/nuclear membrane extends out into the cytoplasm of the cell
Is there a membrane around the nucleolus?
What is the cytoplasm of the nucleus called?
Where is DNA(genes/chromosomes) found? Confined too?
What types of cells have a large Golgi apparatus?
Cells involved in secretions, it is most prominent on the side of the cell that the secretions occur
Which part of the endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attache to it, the rough endoplasmic reticulum or the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Where is the site of protein synthesis?
What are ribosomes made of?
Where do the proteins come from that are used to make ribosomes?
they are synthesized by other ribosomes
Proteins in the nucleus are organized into what two types of units?
1. Large Ribosomal Subunits
2. Small Ribosomal Subunits
While these large and small ribosomal subunits are being formed what substance is being incorporated into them?
ribosomal ribo nucleic acid(rRNA)
In what structures is rRNA found?
ribosomal subunits both large and small
What is the function of rRNA?
directs overall ribosomal synthesis of any protein
What is the size of large ribosomal subunits, small ribosomal subunits and complete ribosomes?
Why is the size of ribosomes important to us?
antibiotics directed to kill bacteria and will not target human ribosome
What are proteins synthesized from?
ribosomes in the cytoplasm
What does DNA(genes) strands code for the synthesis of?
Where does the code come from to the ribosome for each individual protein?
How does this code reach the ribosome?
a messenger, mRNA strand
What does transcription refer to as related to protein production?
When a specific strand of DNA which has been coded for a specific protein it is transcribed on a mRNA or a messenger RNA
What is carried by the mRNA?
Code for the synthesis of a specific protein
How does the mRNA reach a ribosome in the cytoplasm from the nuclear plasm?
through a pore in the nucleus
What is in the ribosome that is necessary for protein synthesis once the mRNA delivers the specific code from the nucleus?
What is the differences between rRNA and mRNA?
rRNA directs overall ribosomal synthesis of any protein, while mRNA Code for the synthesis of a specific protein
What are proteins synthesized from?
What is the function of tRNA?
the function of tRNA is to carry the amino acid to the ribosome and binds new amino acid to the growing chainof amino acid...(for protein making)
Briefly explain what happens in protein synthesis as related to DNA, mRNA, rRNA and tRNA
mRNA carries the message from the DNA to the ribosomes (which is made partly of rRNA). At the ribsomes the tRNAs bring amino acids where they are strung together to make a protein. The peptide bond between amino acids is made by the rRNA in the ribosome.
Where does protein synthesis occur?
Inside the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Once the protein molecule is formed in the RER, where is it sent next?
The Golgi Apparatus
Once the modified protein leaves the Golgi Apparatus what carries them?
What are three possible destinations and examples of modified proteins once they leave the Golgi apparatus in the vesicles.
1. Modified protein stays inside the vesicle within the cell and becomes a lysosome
2. Modified protein within the vesicle leaves the cell by exocytosis into the extracellular fluid and becomes a hormone or neurotransmitter for example
3. Modified protein within the vesicle is incorporated into the cell membrane as an intrinsic protein or a peripheral protein
What is the function of the free ribosomes?
usually make proteins that will function within the cell, while bound ribosomes usually make proteins that are exported from the cell or included in the cell's membranes.
What occurs within the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum(3)?
1. Glycogenesis - the synthesis of glycogen from glucose
2. Synthesis of lipids-phospolipids and cholesterol for example
3. Detoxification of drugs and toxins
What is Glycogenolysis?
The break down of glycogen to provide an energy source for the cell, it is the opposite of glycogenesis
What is Gluconeogenesis?
The formation or synthesis of new glucose from non carbohydrate substances, such as amino acids
What is the primary role of lysosomes?
Where do lysosomes come from?
What kind of proteins are found within lysosomes?
What is the function of hydrolytic enzymes?
They break down organic structures into their component parts(proteins into amino acids for example), how foreign substances such as bacteria is dealt with by phagocytosis
What is the primary function of peroxisomes?
Synthesis of hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)
How does H2O2 affect foreign substances found within the cell?
Its highly destructive, hydrogen peroxide is protective to a point to the cell, but if it accumulates within the cell it will kill the cell
What is the half-life of H2O2?
a split second, almost as soon as its formed it is inactivated
What happens when H2O2 accumulates within the cell?
It starts breaking down the cell, killing it
Hydrogen Peroxide is a member of a reactive oxygen species called?
Toxic Oxygen Radicals or Free Radicals
Name 5 members of the Reactive Oxygen Species.
1. Hydrogen Peroxide
3. Hydroxyl radicals(OH)
4. Hypochlorous acid--->similar to household bleach
5. Nitric Oxide(NO)
What has happened in superoxide(O2-)?
oxygen has stolen a neg ion from the mitochondrial which must then steal one from somewhere else...bad sequence of events
What is caused from these Reactive Oxygen Species; Toxic Oxygen Radicals or Free Radicals?
Accumulation of these substances result in the aging process, dementia, cancers for example.
Also sudden repercussion of ischemic tissue can cause rapid accumulation of these free radicals
What are some examples of Toxic Oxygen Scavengers or Antioxidants?
1. Vitamin E
2. Vitamin C
3. Beta carotene
4. Flavonoids as in dark chocolate, pomegranate juice, cranberries, blueberries, Acai berries, red wines, green/black tea and others
What is the function of Toxic Oxygen Scavengers or Antioxidants?
To seek out and to destroy the Reactive Oxygen Species such as free radicals
The number and activity of mitochondria in a cell is dependent upon what?
the work load of that specific cell, how much energy it needs
Mitochondrial DNA is formed where?
In the crista or the folds, within these folds are enzymes that are essential to DNA synthesis
What is the function of mitochondrial DNA as opposed to nucleic DNA?
Mitochondrial DNA's function is to cause the formation of more Mitochondria(very different from nuclear DNA) by duplication of more ribosomes
Mitochondrial DNA is only passed through which parent?
maternal(mother, grandmother, great grandmother, great great grandmother for example)
What is the function of the mitochondria?
Synthesis ATP(adenosine triphosphate)
What is the function of adenosine triphosphate?
its the energy source of all cells
What molecules makes up ATP?
Adenosine(hydrocarbon) and 3 inorganic phosphate groups
What kind of bond is between the inorganic phosphate molecules of ATP?
High energy phosphate bond
When this bond is broken how many calories(energy) is produces?
12000 calories or 12 kilocalories
After the phosphate bond of ATP is broken what is left?
2 phosphate groups called Adenosine diphosphate(ADP)
If the second phosphate bond is broken how much energy is released and what is the resulting phosphate group called?
What is the amount of energy released if the last phosphate bond is broken in AMP?
7500 calories but it is controversial
What is left when the last phosphate bond is broken?
Adenosine, which then can bind with other phosphate molecules forming AMP, ADP or ATP
What effect does adenosine have on the vascular system?
its a potent vasodilator, which supplies more oxygen, more nutrients through energy supplied by ATP
What effect does adenosine have when it is located in the kidneys?
When injected what does adenosine do to the heart?
stops it, blocks the SA node
What is the definition of a (lower case c)calorie?
amount of heat energy required to raise 1 gm of water 1' C (14-15' C)
What is the definition of a(upper case c)Calorie or Kilocalorie?
Amount of heat energy required to raise 1000 gm(1 kg) of water 1' C (14-15 C')
How much energy is provided with the phosphate bonds are broken of ATP?
2 high energy phosphate bonds; each bond provide 12000 calories of energy
1 less high every phosphate bond provides ~ 7500 calories of energy
How many steps are involved in glycolysis?
How many ATP are formed during glycolysis?
Total of 4 are formed, but 2 are used up to leaves a net of 2
How many pyruvic acids are produced from glycolysis?
In the anaerobic pathway how many molecules of lactic acid are formed?
Anaerobic respiration yields how many ATP?
In Aerobic respiration how many ATP are formed?
What is the final product yield of glycolysis?
-2 molecules of pyruvic acid
-4 Gross ATP produced
-2 Net ATP produced(2 of they ATP are used during glycolysis)
What are the 2 pathways pyruvic acid molecules can go?
aerobic and anaerobic
What happens when pyruvic acid molecules follow the anaerobic pathway?
they are chemically reduced to form lactic acid molecules and yield a net of 2 ATP
What happens when pyruvic acid molecules follow the aerobic pathway?
-2 Pyruvic acids transported from cytoplasm into the mitochondria
-there they are converted into 2 molecules of Acetyl CoEnzyme A
-each acetyl coenzyme A turns the citric acid cycle 1 turn
If a molecule of glucose is metabolized aerobically in the most efficient, what is the yield of ATP(gross and net)?
What is by far the most preferred pathway in metabolism?
What is the byproduct of anaerobic pathway?
What are the nutrients that a cell can metabolize for energy and their ideal order?
1. Glucose from carbohydrates
2. Fatty acids from lipids
3. Amino acids from proteins
What happens to glucose as soon as it crosses into the cytoplasm of the cell?
-it transforms into glucose 6 phosphate, a high energy phosphate that attaches to carbons in glucose in order to trap the glucose inside the
-In the process of dephosphoratizing an ATP to phosphoratize the glucose, 2 ATP are used immediately when glucose crosses the cell membrane and is converted to G6P.
If a cell is not in need of any glucose for energy, which pathway will glucose 6 phosphate take?
Glycogenesis: synthesize glucose to glycogen
What is the process to convert glycogen back to glucose?
What is the fatty acid metabolism process?
-fatty acids transported across cell membrane into cytoplasm
-they then enter into beta oxidation
-beta oxidation converts fatty acids into molecules of acetyl coenzyme A(the number depends on how many carbons are in the fatty acid chain)
-then citric acid cycle
-then electron transport chain
-then yield of ATP, H2) and CO2
What is the amino acid metabolism process?
-can be converted to pyruvic acids, acetyl coenzymes a's and also into amino acids of the Krebs cycle
-ATP yield depends on which amino acid is used and where it enters into the metabolic pathways
How many amino acids are in the human body?
T or F: All atoms are electrically neutral
True, they all have the same number of protons and electrons
If an atom loses an electron, what is it called?
Does an atom gain or lose energy when it loses an electron?
When a substance gains and electron, does it gain energy or lose energy?
Describe the electron transport chain process
-hydrogen atoms are made available to the inner compartment(matrix) of the mitochondria thru special ways
-2 hydrogen transporters: NADH and FADH2
-1st structure accepts 2 electrons and uses the energy to pump a proton from the inner matrix to the outer matrix
-then the 2 electrons are donated to the 3rd structure from the 1st, and the 3rd also accepts 2 electrons from the 2nd structure
-the 3rd structure uses the electron energy to transport a proton from the inner matrix to the outer matrix
-the 3rd structure donates 2 electrons to the 4th structure
-the 4th structure uses the leftover electron energy to pump a proton from inner matrix to the outer matrix
-this results in protons accumulating in the outer matrix
-the 4th structure then has to get rid of the 2 electrons before it can accept 2 more, oxygen is the final acceptor
-the 2 electrons are contributed to the 2 hydrogen ions(protons) to form 2 hydrogen atoms
-those 2 hydrogen atoms combine with molecular oxygen to form water(H2O) byproduct
What is the major purpose of NADH and FADH2
to deliver hydrogen into the inner matrix of the mitochondria
What is the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain?
What is the final byproduct of the electron transport chain?
What is phosphorylation?
-addition of high energy inordinate phosphate group
-requires an enzyme, such as kinase
-adds energy and usually activates, but may inactivate/inhibit, the substance to which its added
What is dephosphorylation?
-removal of high energy inorganic phosphate group
-requires an enzyme, such as phosphatase
-removes energy and may inactivate/inhibit the substance from with it is removed
What is an ATP coupled reaction?
the often simultaneous addition and subtraction of energy through phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, going from ADP to ATP, or from ATP to ADP
What is oxidation-reduction coupled reactions?
-the process of releasing and accepting electrons
-an atom or molecule LOSES electrons(oxidized) and another atom or molecule GAINS electrons(reduced) simultaneously
What is reduction?
-an atom or molecule GAINS electrons
-Gain of hydrogen atom
What is oxidation?
-an atom or molecule LOSES electrons
-Loss of hydrogen atom
What is the result of Ferric when it is chemically reduced?
it gains and electron and is now Ferrous
What is the result if Ferrous is oxidized?
It loses and electron and is now Ferric
What is the result if pyruvic acid(Pyruvate) is chemically reduced?
It gains an electron and is transformed into Lactic acid(Lactate)
What is the result of Lactate if oxidized?
It loses an electron and is transformed into Pyruvic acid(Pyruvate)
What is the result of Nicotinaminde adenine dinucleotide(NAD+) if it is chemically reduced with 2 H?
It gains 2 electrons and 1 proton and is transformed into NADH+(H+)
What is the result if flavin adenine dinucleotide(FAD) is chemically reduced with 2H?
It gains 2 electrons and 2 protons and is transferred into FADH2
T or F: In the human body, most acids are in the ion state?
What is the name of the process that occurs in hepatocytes in which lactic acid is converted back to glycogen?
The Cori Cycle
What happens in during The Cori Cycle?
-the lactic acid that is the end result of anaerobic metabolism of pyruvic acid enters the liver and their if needed, it is changed back to pyruvic acid by an enzyme named phosphotase
-lactic acid is oxidized back to pyruvic acid which forms bicarbonate as a byproduct
-the pyruvic acid is further changed into Glucose-6-phosphate where it is either stored as glycogen or delivered to the blood as glucose
In non-liver cells what is the name of the enzyme that converts glucose?
What is gluconeogenesis?
formation of new glucose from noncarbohydrate substances
What is the main fatty acid used for energy and by what process?
triglyceride, beta oxidation
Whats happens to amino acids in transamination?
A nonessential fatty acid is converted(transaminated) to an essential fatty acid.
What happens to amino acids in Oxidative deamination?
The amino acid is broken down to be an energy source(ketoacid)
What is the byproduct of Oxidative deamination?
What are some examples of apoptosis?
-loosing web between fingers and toes before birth
-immune system cells recognize self-cells
If a membrane protein is a cell marker what is its function?
Regulate self vs. non-self, It will not develop an immune response for the self but initiate an immune response for the non self
How is it that lipid soluble substances can cross the cell membrane?
Because the cell membrane is a phospholipid by layer. It can cross cause its lipid soluble
Name 4 examples of substances that are lipid soluble that can cross through the cell membrane.
Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen, alcohol
For substances not lipid soluble or electrically charged how do they cross the cell membrane?
Has to cross via protein channels
Where do lysosomes originate as opposed to where peroxisomes come from?
1. Lysosomes come from the RER and breaks off to the Golgi Apparatus, they carry a hydrolytic enzyme that carries out phagocytosis.
2. Peroxisomes come from the SER, they carry an enzyme that can carry water and oxygen and them make hydrogen peroxide. It breaks down organic bacteria
What is the difference between Glucokinase vs. Hexokinase used during Beta Oxidation.
Glucokinase is reversible by Phosphokinase and is found in liver cells. Hexokinase is not reversible and is found in non-liver cells.
Where does ammonia come from?
It is a by product of Oxidative deamination. It goes to the liver to be converted to urea to be excreted by the kidnesy
What is metabolism?
Protein being broken down to amino acids and using it as an energy source.
What are the 3 ketone bodies?
-Beta hydroxybutyric acid
When are ketone bodies formed?
When acetyl-coenzyme A accumulates faster than the citric acid cycle can accommodate it.
What can cause the accumulation of acetyl-coenzyme A?
as a result of beta-oxidation of fatty acids or catabolism of ketogenic amino acids
What is yielded by one turn of the Kreb cycle?
What happens in Glycolysis?
1 Glucose molecule is changed to G-6-p once it crosses the cell membrane.
Through phosphorylation becomes Pyruvic Acid.
Net yield of ATP is 2 as well as 2 NADH
What happens after glycolysis?
The 2 pyruvic acids are taken into the mitochondria and changed to 2 acetyl coenzyme A. Each acetyl coenzyme A will turn the Kreb cycle 1 turn.
What is the yield of 1 turn of the Kreb cycle?
total ATP yield from the Kreb cycle is 12 ATP
What is the first acid formed by the Kreb cycle and the last?
Citric Acid and Oxaloacetic Acid
What is the total yield from the Electronic Transfer System?
including the NADH/FADH2 from the Kreb Cycle are brought into the ETC to transport Hydrogen, the total yield is 34 yield ATP/6 H20
So these 34 plus the 2 ATP from glycolysis and the 2 from Anerobic respiration = 38 total ATP
How does fatty acids lead to ATP formation?
Tryglerides broken down into glycerol and fatty acid chains. Glycerol can join the glycolysis path via gluconeogenesis. The fatty acid chain become acytel coenzyme through beta oxidation. Each acytel coenzyme can turn the Kreb cycle 1 turn.
How many ATP can be formed from 1 fatty acid beta oxidation?
Calculate the ATP value for a 16 fatty acid chain.
so that would be 7 beta oxidations
7 NADH x 3
7 acety CEAx12
+12(for the first Acyety that didnot undergo BO
- 2 ATP to start with
129 ATP net yield