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Flashcards in Physiology Test 1 Deck (178):
0

How many cells in the human body?

75 - 100 trillion

1

What are two types of cell death?

1. Apoptosis
2. Cell necrosis

3

What is apoptosis?

Programmed cell death(planned), occurs all the time, naturally(i.e. webs between our fingers before birth)

4

What is cell necrosis?

Unplanned abnormal death of the cell, occurs from lack of blood supply and oxygen for example ischemia and necrosis

4

What is the major organization of a cell?

Nucleus and the cytoplasm

5

What cells are not reproduced?

Neurons,They are not replaced.

6

What is water used for in the cell?

Medium for substances to be dissolved or suspended and for chemical reactions

8

What is water used for in the cell?

Medium for substances to be dissolved or suspended and for chemical reactions, water must be kept in a very narrow range as if not it can cause cell death

8

What two types of proteins are found in cells?

1. Structural
2. Globular

9

What are the two types of intracellur electrolytes?

1. Cations:(+ charge) POTASSIUM is a monovalent(meaning it carries 1 positive charge) it is the most abundant intracellular cation. Magnesium, calcium, sodium, if too much calcium accumulates in the cell it can cause cell death, low levels of calcium and sodium inside the cell
2. Anions:(- charge) inorganate phosphate is the most abundant intracellular anion, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate
these 3 usually monovalent

10

What are three types of lipids found in the cell?

1. Phospholipids
2. Cholesterol
3. Triglycerides

11

The plasma membrane is also known as what?

The cell membrane

12

What are two forms of carbohydrates in the cells?

1. Glucose-neuron likes to use glucose for their energy source
2. Glycogen- storage form of glucose(major source of stored glycogen is in the hepatacytes of the liver)

13

What type of membrane is the cell membrane?

a phospholipid bilayer

14

What is the description of the "head" of the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane(3)?

1. Its polar, meaning it has negative and positive charged areas(nitrogen, organic phosphorus)
2. its hydrophilic, meaning it has a strong affinity for water
3. it contains organic phosphate(its not an electrolyte)

15

What is the description of the "tails" of the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane?

1. two tails, containing fatty acids(carbon, hydrogen), they are lipid tails
2. non polar, meaning it has equally distributed charges not accumulated in one pole or the other
3. its hydrophobic, meaning it has no affinity with water

16

What are peripheral proteins?

proteins that don't transverse the entire cell membrane

17

What are intrinsic(integral) proteins?

proteins that transverse the entire cell membrane

18

What are the two types of proteins in the cell membrane?

1. Intrinsic proteins
2. peripheral proteins

19

A cell function is dependent upon what?

The type, function or number of specific organelles within the cell

20

What are the levels of physiology?

1. Human Organism
2. Systems
3. Organs
4. Tissues
5. Cells
6. Organelles
7. Proteins, lipids, carbs and or combinations
8. Molecules
9. Atoms
10. Electrons, Protons, Neutrons

21

Humans are indivisible inseparable within four parts, what are they? What affects one of them affects them all.

Body
Mind
Spirit
Time

22

The cell membrane separates what?

The intracellular compartment from the extracellular compartment

23

Collectively the part of the cell between the cell membrane and the nuclear membrane is called?

Cytoplasm

24

The substances as a unit that make up a cell is called the?

Protoplasm

25

What is the function of structural proteins?

They provide structure and support for the cell, for example the cytoskeleton

26

What are two examples of globular proteins?

1. enzymes
2. some transport proteins that are a part of the cell membrane

27

What some examples of fluids found extracellular?

Interstitial fluid
CNS fluid
pleural fluid
Synovial fluid
Intervascular fluid
Pericardial fluid

28

What is a phospholipid bilayer?

cells that form the cell membrane in two layers

29

Organelles within the cell are surrounded by?

unilayer or bilayer phospholipids, separates the organelle from the rest of the cytoplasm

30

What are functions of the Intrinsic proteins(5)?

1. Protein channels allowing passage in and out of cell
2. Transport proteins in and out of the cell(binding sites)
3. Cell membrane-bound receptors
4. Cell markers

31

What are the functions/characteristics of peripheral proteins(3)?

1. either point toward inside or outside
2. enzymes
3. often attached to and regulate intrinsic proteins or carry out messages as directed by intrinsic proteins

32

What are glycoproteins?

Carbohydrate chains that extend out of the cell membrane are attached to a protein

33

What are glycolipids?

Carbohydrate chains that extend out of the cell membrane and are attached to a fatty acid tail(lipid)

34

What is the glycocalyx

formed on the outside of the cell made up of glycoproteins and glycolipids that provide and outer support structure. Often the glycocalyx between cells are attached, causing the cells to be attached together

35

What is a ligund?

A chemical signal that may or may not be able to bind to the receptor site on the receptor protein of a cell. Hormones use this procedure...matching ligund to the receptor site

36

What is a cell surface marker?

A glycoprotein or glycolipid useful in allowing the immune system identifying normal cells from foreign cells, when WBC identify good cells they let them pass, when they see a bacterial, cancer of fungi(for example) they attack them

37

What separates the nucleus form the rest of the cell?

the nuclear envelope

38

What type of membrane makes up the nuclear envelope?

two separate phospholipid bilayer membranes with a matrix(space) between the two membranes

39

What is the endoplasmic reticulum?

it is where the nuclear envelope/nuclear membrane extends out into the cytoplasm of the cell

40

Is there a membrane around the nucleolus?

No

41

What is the cytoplasm of the nucleus called?

nucleoplasm

42

Where is DNA(genes/chromosomes) found? Confined too?

nucleus

43

What types of cells have a large Golgi apparatus?

Cells involved in secretions, it is most prominent on the side of the cell that the secretions occur

44

Which part of the endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attache to it, the rough endoplasmic reticulum or the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

45

Where is the site of protein synthesis?

the ribosomes

46

What are ribosomes made of?

Proteins

47

Where do the proteins come from that are used to make ribosomes?

they are synthesized by other ribosomes

48

Proteins in the nucleus are organized into what two types of units?

1. Large Ribosomal Subunits
2. Small Ribosomal Subunits

49

While these large and small ribosomal subunits are being formed what substance is being incorporated into them?

ribosomal ribo nucleic acid(rRNA)

50

In what structures is rRNA found?

ribosomal subunits both large and small

51

What is the function of rRNA?

directs overall ribosomal synthesis of any protein

52

What is the size of large ribosomal subunits, small ribosomal subunits and complete ribosomes?

LRSU-60s
SRSU-40s
CR-80s

53

Why is the size of ribosomes important to us?

antibiotics directed to kill bacteria and will not target human ribosome

54

What are proteins synthesized from?

ribosomes in the cytoplasm

55

What does DNA(genes) strands code for the synthesis of?

proteins

56

Where does the code come from to the ribosome for each individual protein?

The nucleus

57

How does this code reach the ribosome?

a messenger, mRNA strand

58

What does transcription refer to as related to protein production?

When a specific strand of DNA which has been coded for a specific protein it is transcribed on a mRNA or a messenger RNA

59

What is carried by the mRNA?

Code for the synthesis of a specific protein

60

How does the mRNA reach a ribosome in the cytoplasm from the nuclear plasm?

through a pore in the nucleus

61

What is in the ribosome that is necessary for protein synthesis once the mRNA delivers the specific code from the nucleus?

rRNA

62

What is the differences between rRNA and mRNA?

rRNA directs overall ribosomal synthesis of any protein, while mRNA Code for the synthesis of a specific protein

63

What are proteins synthesized from?

amino acids

64

What is the function of tRNA?

the function of tRNA is to carry the amino acid to the ribosome and binds new amino acid to the growing chainof amino acid...(for protein making)

65

Briefly explain what happens in protein synthesis as related to DNA, mRNA, rRNA and tRNA

mRNA carries the message from the DNA to the ribosomes (which is made partly of rRNA). At the ribsomes the tRNAs bring amino acids where they are strung together to make a protein. The peptide bond between amino acids is made by the rRNA in the ribosome.

66

Where does protein synthesis occur?

Inside the rough endoplasmic reticulum

67

Once the protein molecule is formed in the RER, where is it sent next?

The Golgi Apparatus

68

Once the modified protein leaves the Golgi Apparatus what carries them?

Vesicles

69

What are three possible destinations and examples of modified proteins once they leave the Golgi apparatus in the vesicles.

1. Modified protein stays inside the vesicle within the cell and becomes a lysosome
2. Modified protein within the vesicle leaves the cell by exocytosis into the extracellular fluid and becomes a hormone or neurotransmitter for example
3. Modified protein within the vesicle is incorporated into the cell membrane as an intrinsic protein or a peripheral protein

70

What is the function of the free ribosomes?

usually make proteins that will function within the cell, while bound ribosomes usually make proteins that are exported from the cell or included in the cell's membranes.

71

What occurs within the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum(3)?

1. Glycogenesis - the synthesis of glycogen from glucose
2. Synthesis of lipids-phospolipids and cholesterol for example
3. Detoxification of drugs and toxins

72

What is Glycogenolysis?

The break down of glycogen to provide an energy source for the cell, it is the opposite of glycogenesis

73

What is Gluconeogenesis?

The formation or synthesis of new glucose from non carbohydrate substances, such as amino acids

74

What is the primary role of lysosomes?

phagocytosis

75

Where do lysosomes come from?

Golgi Apparatus

76

What kind of proteins are found within lysosomes?

hydrolytic enzymes

77

What is the function of hydrolytic enzymes?

They break down organic structures into their component parts(proteins into amino acids for example), how foreign substances such as bacteria is dealt with by phagocytosis

78

What is the primary function of peroxisomes?

Synthesis of hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)

79

How does H2O2 affect foreign substances found within the cell?

Its highly destructive, hydrogen peroxide is protective to a point to the cell, but if it accumulates within the cell it will kill the cell

80

What is the half-life of H2O2?

a split second, almost as soon as its formed it is inactivated

81

What happens when H2O2 accumulates within the cell?

It starts breaking down the cell, killing it

82

Hydrogen Peroxide is a member of a reactive oxygen species called?

Toxic Oxygen Radicals or Free Radicals

83

Name 5 members of the Reactive Oxygen Species.

1. Hydrogen Peroxide
2. Superoxide(02-)
3. Hydroxyl radicals(OH)
4. Hypochlorous acid--->similar to household bleach
5. Nitric Oxide(NO)

84

What has happened in superoxide(O2-)?

oxygen has stolen a neg ion from the mitochondrial which must then steal one from somewhere else...bad sequence of events

85

What is caused from these Reactive Oxygen Species; Toxic Oxygen Radicals or Free Radicals?

Accumulation of these substances result in the aging process, dementia, cancers for example.
Also sudden repercussion of ischemic tissue can cause rapid accumulation of these free radicals

86

What are some examples of Toxic Oxygen Scavengers or Antioxidants?

1. Vitamin E
2. Vitamin C
3. Beta carotene
4. Flavonoids as in dark chocolate, pomegranate juice, cranberries, blueberries, Acai berries, red wines, green/black tea and others

87

What is the function of Toxic Oxygen Scavengers or Antioxidants?

To seek out and to destroy the Reactive Oxygen Species such as free radicals

88

The number and activity of mitochondria in a cell is dependent upon what?

the work load of that specific cell, how much energy it needs

89

Mitochondrial DNA is formed where?

In the crista or the folds, within these folds are enzymes that are essential to DNA synthesis

90

What is the function of mitochondrial DNA as opposed to nucleic DNA?

Mitochondrial DNA's function is to cause the formation of more Mitochondria(very different from nuclear DNA) by duplication of more ribosomes

91

Mitochondrial DNA is only passed through which parent?

maternal(mother, grandmother, great grandmother, great great grandmother for example)

92

What is the function of the mitochondria?

Synthesis ATP(adenosine triphosphate)

93

What is the function of adenosine triphosphate?

its the energy source of all cells

94

What molecules makes up ATP?

Adenosine(hydrocarbon) and 3 inorganic phosphate groups

95

What kind of bond is between the inorganic phosphate molecules of ATP?

High energy phosphate bond

96

When this bond is broken how many calories(energy) is produces?

12000 calories or 12 kilocalories

97

After the phosphate bond of ATP is broken what is left?

2 phosphate groups called Adenosine diphosphate(ADP)

98

If the second phosphate bond is broken how much energy is released and what is the resulting phosphate group called?

12000,monophosphate(AMP)

99

What is the amount of energy released if the last phosphate bond is broken in AMP?

7500 calories but it is controversial

100

What is left when the last phosphate bond is broken?

Adenosine, which then can bind with other phosphate molecules forming AMP, ADP or ATP

101

What effect does adenosine have on the vascular system?

its a potent vasodilator, which supplies more oxygen, more nutrients through energy supplied by ATP

102

What effect does adenosine have when it is located in the kidneys?

potent vasoconstrictor

103

When injected what does adenosine do to the heart?

stops it, blocks the SA node

104

What is the definition of a (lower case c)calorie?

amount of heat energy required to raise 1 gm of water 1' C (14-15' C)

105

What is the definition of a(upper case c)Calorie or Kilocalorie?

Amount of heat energy required to raise 1000 gm(1 kg) of water 1' C (14-15 C')

106

How much energy is provided with the phosphate bonds are broken of ATP?

2 high energy phosphate bonds; each bond provide 12000 calories of energy
1 less high every phosphate bond provides ~ 7500 calories of energy

107

How many steps are involved in glycolysis?

12 steps

108

How many ATP are formed during glycolysis?

Total of 4 are formed, but 2 are used up to leaves a net of 2

109

How many pyruvic acids are produced from glycolysis?

2

110

In the anaerobic pathway how many molecules of lactic acid are formed?

2

111

Anaerobic respiration yields how many ATP?

2

112

In Aerobic respiration how many ATP are formed?

38

113

What is the final product yield of glycolysis?

-2 molecules of pyruvic acid
-4 Gross ATP produced
-2 Net ATP produced(2 of they ATP are used during glycolysis)

114

What are the 2 pathways pyruvic acid molecules can go?

aerobic and anaerobic

115

What happens when pyruvic acid molecules follow the anaerobic pathway?

they are chemically reduced to form lactic acid molecules and yield a net of 2 ATP

116

What happens when pyruvic acid molecules follow the aerobic pathway?

-2 Pyruvic acids transported from cytoplasm into the mitochondria
-there they are converted into 2 molecules of Acetyl CoEnzyme A
-each acetyl coenzyme A turns the citric acid cycle 1 turn

117

If a molecule of glucose is metabolized aerobically in the most efficient, what is the yield of ATP(gross and net)?

Gross=40 ATP
Net=38 ATP

118

What is by far the most preferred pathway in metabolism?

Aerobic

119

What is the byproduct of anaerobic pathway?

Lactic acid

120

What are the nutrients that a cell can metabolize for energy and their ideal order?

1. Glucose from carbohydrates
2. Fatty acids from lipids
3. Amino acids from proteins

121

What happens to glucose as soon as it crosses into the cytoplasm of the cell?

-it transforms into glucose 6 phosphate, a high energy phosphate that attaches to carbons in glucose in order to trap the glucose inside the
-In the process of dephosphoratizing an ATP to phosphoratize the glucose, 2 ATP are used immediately when glucose crosses the cell membrane and is converted to G6P.

122

If a cell is not in need of any glucose for energy, which pathway will glucose 6 phosphate take?

Glycogenesis: synthesize glucose to glycogen

123

What is the process to convert glycogen back to glucose?

Glycogenolysis

124

What is the fatty acid metabolism process?

-fatty acids transported across cell membrane into cytoplasm
-they then enter into beta oxidation
-beta oxidation converts fatty acids into molecules of acetyl coenzyme A(the number depends on how many carbons are in the fatty acid chain)
-then citric acid cycle
-then electron transport chain
-then yield of ATP, H2) and CO2

125

What is the amino acid metabolism process?

-is various
-can be converted to pyruvic acids, acetyl coenzymes a's and also into amino acids of the Krebs cycle
-ATP yield depends on which amino acid is used and where it enters into the metabolic pathways

126

How many amino acids are in the human body?

20

127

T or F: All atoms are electrically neutral

True, they all have the same number of protons and electrons

128

If an atom loses an electron, what is it called?

oxidation

129

Does an atom gain or lose energy when it loses an electron?

loses energy

130

When a substance gains and electron, does it gain energy or lose energy?

gains energy

131

Describe the electron transport chain process

-hydrogen atoms are made available to the inner compartment(matrix) of the mitochondria thru special ways
-2 hydrogen transporters: NADH and FADH2
-1st structure accepts 2 electrons and uses the energy to pump a proton from the inner matrix to the outer matrix
-then the 2 electrons are donated to the 3rd structure from the 1st, and the 3rd also accepts 2 electrons from the 2nd structure
-the 3rd structure uses the electron energy to transport a proton from the inner matrix to the outer matrix
-the 3rd structure donates 2 electrons to the 4th structure
-the 4th structure uses the leftover electron energy to pump a proton from inner matrix to the outer matrix
-this results in protons accumulating in the outer matrix
-the 4th structure then has to get rid of the 2 electrons before it can accept 2 more, oxygen is the final acceptor
-the 2 electrons are contributed to the 2 hydrogen ions(protons) to form 2 hydrogen atoms
-those 2 hydrogen atoms combine with molecular oxygen to form water(H2O) byproduct

132

What is the major purpose of NADH and FADH2

to deliver hydrogen into the inner matrix of the mitochondria

133

What is the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain?

oxygen

134

What is the final byproduct of the electron transport chain?

water

135

What is phosphorylation?

-addition of high energy inordinate phosphate group
-requires an enzyme, such as kinase
-adds energy and usually activates, but may inactivate/inhibit, the substance to which its added

136

What is dephosphorylation?

-removal of high energy inorganic phosphate group
-requires an enzyme, such as phosphatase
-removes energy and may inactivate/inhibit the substance from with it is removed

137

What is an ATP coupled reaction?

the often simultaneous addition and subtraction of energy through phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, going from ADP to ATP, or from ATP to ADP

138

What is oxidation-reduction coupled reactions?

-the process of releasing and accepting electrons
-an atom or molecule LOSES electrons(oxidized) and another atom or molecule GAINS electrons(reduced) simultaneously

139

What is reduction?

-an atom or molecule GAINS electrons
-Gain of hydrogen atom

140

What is oxidation?

-an atom or molecule LOSES electrons
-Loss of hydrogen atom

141

What is the result of Ferric when it is chemically reduced?

it gains and electron and is now Ferrous

142

What is the result if Ferrous is oxidized?

It loses and electron and is now Ferric

143

What is the result if pyruvic acid(Pyruvate) is chemically reduced?

It gains an electron and is transformed into Lactic acid(Lactate)

144

What is the result of Lactate if oxidized?

It loses an electron and is transformed into Pyruvic acid(Pyruvate)

145

What is the result of Nicotinaminde adenine dinucleotide(NAD+) if it is chemically reduced with 2 H?

It gains 2 electrons and 1 proton and is transformed into NADH+(H+)

146

What is the result if flavin adenine dinucleotide(FAD) is chemically reduced with 2H?

It gains 2 electrons and 2 protons and is transferred into FADH2

147

T or F: In the human body, most acids are in the ion state?

True

148

What is the name of the process that occurs in hepatocytes in which lactic acid is converted back to glycogen?

The Cori Cycle

149

What happens in during The Cori Cycle?

-the lactic acid that is the end result of anaerobic metabolism of pyruvic acid enters the liver and their if needed, it is changed back to pyruvic acid by an enzyme named phosphotase
-lactic acid is oxidized back to pyruvic acid which forms bicarbonate as a byproduct
-the pyruvic acid is further changed into Glucose-6-phosphate where it is either stored as glycogen or delivered to the blood as glucose

150

In non-liver cells what is the name of the enzyme that converts glucose?

hectokinase

151

What is gluconeogenesis?

formation of new glucose from noncarbohydrate substances

152

What is the main fatty acid used for energy and by what process?

triglyceride, beta oxidation

153

Whats happens to amino acids in transamination?

A nonessential fatty acid is converted(transaminated) to an essential fatty acid.

154

What happens to amino acids in Oxidative deamination?

The amino acid is broken down to be an energy source(ketoacid)

155

What is the byproduct of Oxidative deamination?

Ammonia

156

What are some examples of apoptosis?

-loosing web between fingers and toes before birth
-immune system cells recognize self-cells

157

If a membrane protein is a cell marker what is its function?

Regulate self vs. non-self, It will not develop an immune response for the self but initiate an immune response for the non self

158

How is it that lipid soluble substances can cross the cell membrane?

Because the cell membrane is a phospholipid by layer. It can cross cause its lipid soluble

159

Name 4 examples of substances that are lipid soluble that can cross through the cell membrane.

Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen, alcohol

160

For substances not lipid soluble or electrically charged how do they cross the cell membrane?

Has to cross via protein channels

161

Where do lysosomes originate as opposed to where peroxisomes come from?

1. Lysosomes come from the RER and breaks off to the Golgi Apparatus, they carry a hydrolytic enzyme that carries out phagocytosis.
2. Peroxisomes come from the SER, they carry an enzyme that can carry water and oxygen and them make hydrogen peroxide. It breaks down organic bacteria

162

What is the difference between Glucokinase vs. Hexokinase used during Beta Oxidation.

Glucokinase is reversible by Phosphokinase and is found in liver cells. Hexokinase is not reversible and is found in non-liver cells.

163

Where does ammonia come from?

It is a by product of Oxidative deamination. It goes to the liver to be converted to urea to be excreted by the kidnesy

164

What is metabolism?

Protein being broken down to amino acids and using it as an energy source.

165

What are the 3 ketone bodies?

-Acetoacetic acid
-Beta hydroxybutyric acid
-Acetone

166

When are ketone bodies formed?

When acetyl-coenzyme A accumulates faster than the citric acid cycle can accommodate it.

167

What can cause the accumulation of acetyl-coenzyme A?

as a result of beta-oxidation of fatty acids or catabolism of ketogenic amino acids

168

What is yielded by one turn of the Kreb cycle?

-1 ATP
-3 NADH
-2 FADH2
-2 CO2

169

What happens in Glycolysis?

1 Glucose molecule is changed to G-6-p once it crosses the cell membrane.
Through phosphorylation becomes Pyruvic Acid.
Net yield of ATP is 2 as well as 2 NADH

170

What happens after glycolysis?

The 2 pyruvic acids are taken into the mitochondria and changed to 2 acetyl coenzyme A. Each acetyl coenzyme A will turn the Kreb cycle 1 turn.

171

What is the yield of 1 turn of the Kreb cycle?

1 ATP
3 NADH
1 FADH2
2 CO2
----------
total ATP yield from the Kreb cycle is 12 ATP

172

What is the first acid formed by the Kreb cycle and the last?

Citric Acid and Oxaloacetic Acid

173

What is the total yield from the Electronic Transfer System?

including the NADH/FADH2 from the Kreb Cycle are brought into the ETC to transport Hydrogen, the total yield is 34 yield ATP/6 H20

So these 34 plus the 2 ATP from glycolysis and the 2 from Anerobic respiration = 38 total ATP

174

How does fatty acids lead to ATP formation?

Tryglerides broken down into glycerol and fatty acid chains. Glycerol can join the glycolysis path via gluconeogenesis. The fatty acid chain become acytel coenzyme through beta oxidation. Each acytel coenzyme can turn the Kreb cycle 1 turn.

175

How many ATP can be formed from 1 fatty acid beta oxidation?

17

176

Calculate the ATP value for a 16 fatty acid chain.

so that would be 7 beta oxidations
7 NADH x 3
7 FADH2x2
7 acety CEAx12
-------------------
119 ATP
+12(for the first Acyety that didnot undergo BO
--------
131 ATP
- 2 ATP to start with
-----------
129 ATP net yield

177

So what would 1 trygleride molecule yield if it had a 16 C chain?

129 x 3=387 ATP