Flashcards in Physiology Test 1 Deck (178)
How many cells in the human body?
75 - 100 trillion
What are two types of cell death?
2. Cell necrosis
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death(planned), occurs all the time, naturally(i.e. webs between our fingers before birth)
What is cell necrosis?
Unplanned abnormal death of the cell, occurs from lack of blood supply and oxygen for example ischemia and necrosis
What is the major organization of a cell?
Nucleus and the cytoplasm
What cells are not reproduced?
Neurons,They are not replaced.
What is water used for in the cell?
Medium for substances to be dissolved or suspended and for chemical reactions
What is water used for in the cell?
Medium for substances to be dissolved or suspended and for chemical reactions, water must be kept in a very narrow range as if not it can cause cell death
What two types of proteins are found in cells?
What are the two types of intracellur electrolytes?
1. Cations:(+ charge) POTASSIUM is a monovalent(meaning it carries 1 positive charge) it is the most abundant intracellular cation. Magnesium, calcium, sodium, if too much calcium accumulates in the cell it can cause cell death, low levels of calcium and sodium inside the cell
2. Anions:(- charge) inorganate phosphate is the most abundant intracellular anion, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate
these 3 usually monovalent
What are three types of lipids found in the cell?
The plasma membrane is also known as what?
The cell membrane
What are two forms of carbohydrates in the cells?
1. Glucose-neuron likes to use glucose for their energy source
2. Glycogen- storage form of glucose(major source of stored glycogen is in the hepatacytes of the liver)
What type of membrane is the cell membrane?
a phospholipid bilayer
What is the description of the "head" of the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane(3)?
1. Its polar, meaning it has negative and positive charged areas(nitrogen, organic phosphorus)
2. its hydrophilic, meaning it has a strong affinity for water
3. it contains organic phosphate(its not an electrolyte)
What is the description of the "tails" of the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane?
1. two tails, containing fatty acids(carbon, hydrogen), they are lipid tails
2. non polar, meaning it has equally distributed charges not accumulated in one pole or the other
3. its hydrophobic, meaning it has no affinity with water
What are peripheral proteins?
proteins that don't transverse the entire cell membrane
What are intrinsic(integral) proteins?
proteins that transverse the entire cell membrane
What are the two types of proteins in the cell membrane?
1. Intrinsic proteins
2. peripheral proteins
A cell function is dependent upon what?
The type, function or number of specific organelles within the cell
What are the levels of physiology?
1. Human Organism
7. Proteins, lipids, carbs and or combinations
10. Electrons, Protons, Neutrons
Humans are indivisible inseparable within four parts, what are they? What affects one of them affects them all.
The cell membrane separates what?
The intracellular compartment from the extracellular compartment
Collectively the part of the cell between the cell membrane and the nuclear membrane is called?
The substances as a unit that make up a cell is called the?
What is the function of structural proteins?
They provide structure and support for the cell, for example the cytoskeleton
What are two examples of globular proteins?
2. some transport proteins that are a part of the cell membrane
What some examples of fluids found extracellular?
What is a phospholipid bilayer?
cells that form the cell membrane in two layers