Physiology Test 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology Test 2 Deck (207)
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1

What is the most abundant extracellular cation?

sodium(Na+)

2

What is the most abundant extracellular anion?

Chloride(Cl-)

3

What is the most abundant intracellular cation?

Potassium(K+)

4

What is the most abundant intracellular anion?

inorganic phosphate

5

What molecule is a co-factor for almost all chemical reactions?

magnesium

6

What is a byproduct of the kreb cycle and what type of metabolism is it a result of?

CO2, aerobic metabolism and its comes from a carboxyl group

7

What is the function of ribosomes?

protein synthesis

8

What are the average extracellular and intracellular concentrations of sodium(Na+)?

140 mEq/L and 14 mEq/L

9

What are the average extracellular and intracellular concentrations of potassium(K+)?

4 mEq/L and 140 mEq/L

10

What are the average extracellular and intracellular concentrations of calcium(Ca2+)?

2.4 mEq/L and 0.0001 mEq/L

11

What are the average extracellular and intracellular concentrations of magnesium(Mg2+)?

1.2 mEq/L and 58 mEq/L

12

What are the average extracellular and intracellular concentrations of chloride(Cl-)?

103 mEq/L and 4 mEq/L

13

What are the average extracellular and intracellular concentrations of inorganic phosphate(HPO4)?

4 mEq/L and 75 mEq/L

14

What are the average extracellular and intracellular concentrations of glucose?

90 mg/dL and 0-20 mg/dL

15

What are the average extracellular and intracellular concentrations of pO2?

35 - 40 mmHg and ~20 mmHg

16

What are the average extracellular and intracellular concentrations of pCO2?

40 - 45 mmHg and ~45 - 50 mmHg

17

What are the average extracellular and intracellular concentrations of Amino Acids?

30 mg/dL and 200 mg/dL

18

What are two major categories by which molecules move across the cell membrane?

1. Simple diffusion
2. Active transport

19

What is another name for diffusion?

passive transport

20

How does simple diffusion occur?

molecule moves with the gradient, from higher to lower gradient(down the hill), does not utilize ATP

21

How does active transport occur?

molecule moves against the gradient from lower to higher gradient(up the hill)

22

What drives active transport?

energy is taken from ATP to drive the active process

23

What substances diffuse directly through the cell membrane by simple diffusion(4)?

oxygen
carbon dioxide
nitrogen
alcohol

24

Molecules that diffuse directly across the cell membrane, are what soluble?

lipid/fat soluble substances

25

What types of molecules needs help transversing the cell membrane? And what types of channels do they move through(still referring to simple diffusion)?

1. those that are water soluble(cell membrane is made up of lipids) and those that are electrically charged(anions and cations--->the cell membrane is polar)
2. protein channels

26

What is the main characteristic of a protein channel?

its selectively permeable

27

What are the three factors that determine the selective permeability of each protein channel?

1. size
2. shape
3. electrical charge within the channel

28

What are two types of protein leak channels?

1. sodium leak channel
2. potassium leak channel

29

What is the characteristic of a leak channel?

Leak channels are always open allowing substances to move across the cell membrane from a higher gradient to a lower gradient

30

What is the characteristic of a sodium leak channel?

sodium diffuses with the gradient from outside of the cell to the inside of the cell, sodium has a {} outside of the cell