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Flashcards in Pharm Qiz 2 Deck (23)
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What is the only volatile agent that is not a racemic mixture?



Define hyperreactive?

Low dose for expected results. O.5mg versed makes the patient blue for example(BIG REACTION TO SMALL DOSE)


Define hypersensitive

Allergic reaction to a drug


Define hyporeactive

Large dose for expected results, 380 mg dilaudid


Define tolerance

hypo-reactivity secondary to chronic exposure


Define cross tolerance

hypo-reactivity between drugs of different classes, for example ether or alcohol, propofol and alcohol both affect GABA so it might take more drug to achieve the effect.


Define tachyphylaxis

hypo-reactivity with only a few drug doses, the first time one receives fentanyl its the best it will ever be


Three ways one develops tolerance

1. cellular tolerance, neuronal adaptation(crack smoker having neuro changes)
2. Enzyme induction(drinks alcohol everyday)
3. Neurotransmitter depletion(big coffee drinkers deplete their catecholamine stores, so it would take more catecholamine support for them


Define immunity

hypo-reactivity due to the formation of antibodies


Define idosyncrasy

unusual drug effects in small percentage of patients regardless of dose


Define additive effects

2 drugs together have total effects of each drug added together, 1/2 mac Des + 1/2 mac of N20 = 1 mac


Define synergistic effect?

2 drugs interact to have effect greater than each effect if drug was given alone, 1/2 mac drug "a" + 1.2 mac drug "b" = 2 mac


Define agonist in relation to a drug effect

binds to receptor and activates, there is a conformational change at the receptor site


Define antagonist as related to a drug receptor

drug binds but does not activate or generate a response


What are two types of antagonist?

1. competitive
2. non competitive


Explain competitive antagonist

agonist can replace the antagonist on the receptor site, it takes greater does of antagonist to prevent being swept off the receptor site by the agonist


Explain noncompetative antagonist

Irreversible binding, large doses of agonist can't overcome the antagonist on the receptor site


In the two compartment model of pharmokinetics what happens?

Drug is administered IV into the central compartment, distributes to the peripheral compartment, and then returns to the central compartment for clearance


Define the central compartment

1. intravascular fluid
2. highly perfused tissue(heart, lung, brain,kidneys and liver)
3. 75% of cardiac output but only 10% of the blood mass


Define peripheral compartment

Everything else, majority of body weight, minority of cardiac output

-theoretical calculated volume
-rate of drug transfer from central compartment to peripheral compartment can vary with age
-peripheral drug compartment can exaggerate repeated drug doses


What do log graphs show concerning decreases in drug plasma versus time after IV bolus?

alpha shows distribution with a rapid fall off of concentration, while beta elimination will show a more slow decline


What is elimination 1/2 time?

-most common method of describing a drugs pharmakinetic behavior
-its the time necessary for the plasma concentration to decrease by half
-Inversely proportional to clearance
-5 elimination1/2 times necessary for 97% clearance of a drug


What is elimination 1/2 life?

time necessary to eliminate 1/2 of the drug from the body, elimination 1/2 life is not = elimination 1/2 time if plasma concentration decreases do not = drug elimination