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Flashcards in Plant Oils Deck (27):
1

Some [ ] and [ ] contain a lot of oil

Plants and seeds

2

What can plant oil be used for?

Food or fuel

3

How can oil be extracted from plants? (Traditional method)

1) The plant material is crushed
2) Press the crushed plant material between metal plates and squash the oil out

4

What does distillation do?

Refines oil, and removes water, solvents and impurities

5

Apart from crushing, how else can you get oil from plants?

Using solvents

6

How is oil separated fro crushed plant material?

A centrifuge

7

Why are vegetable oils used in food?

1) Provide a lot of energy - high energy content
2) There are other nutrients in vegetable oils
3) vegetable oils contain essential fatty acids, which the body needs for many metabolic processes

8

Why are vegetable oils used in fuel?

1) They provide a lot of energy

9

Why is a very useful fuel made from vegetable oils? Describe it.

Biodiesel - has similar properties to ordinary diesel - it burns the same way, so you can use it to fuel a diesel engine

10

What do unsaturated oil contain?

C=C bonds

11

What type of molecules do oils and fats contain?

Long-chain molecules with lots of carbon atoms

12

Oils and fats can either be [ ] or [ ]

Saturated or unsaturated

13

What will an unsaturated fat do to bromine water

Make the bromine water turn colourless - decolourise it

14

What are monounsaturated fats?

Fats that contain ONE C=C double bond somewhere in their carbon chains

15

What are polyunsaturated fats?

Fats that contain MORE than one C=C double bond

16

Unsaturated oils can be [ ]

Hydrogenated

17

What state are vegetable oils at room temperature?

Liquid

18

What is hydrogenation?

Vegetable oils can be hardened by reaction them with hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst at about 60 °C.
The hydrogen reacts with the double-bonded carbons ad opens out the double bonds

19

Can you draw the diagram for a hydrogenation reaction of ethene?

Answer page 61

20

What differences do hydrogenated oils have from normal oil? Why is that useful?

1) Higher melting points - therefore more solid at room temp. This makes them useful as spreads

21

Describe the hydrogenation of margarine

Usually made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oil - turning ALL the double bonds to single bonds would make the margarine too hard and difficult to spread

22

Why are partially hydrogenated vegetable oils used instead of butter in processed foods?

They are a lot cheaper than butter and they keep a lot longer

23

What is the disadvantage of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils?

You end up with a lot of trans fats. There's evidence to suggest that trans fats are very bad for you.

24

Vegetables oils tend to be [ ], while animals fats tend to be [ ]

Vegetable: Unsaturated
Animal: Saturated

25

Which is unhealthier, saturated or unsaturated? Why?

Saturated fats (generally) - they increase the amount of cholesterol in the blood, which can block up the arteries and increase the risk of heart disease

26

Describe unsaturated fats in relation to cholesterol

Natural unsaturated fats reduce the amount of blood cholesterol. But because of the trans fats, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil increases the amount of cholesterol in the blood

27

What does cooking food in oil make the food?

More fattening