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Flashcards in politics Deck (2):

politics (n)
policy (n)
He failed in ~ because he was such a poor speaker.
- foreign / economic / social / defence / immigration ~ -
a politician (n)
parliament (n)
government (n)
The prime minister is unlikely to get this law through ~.
When parliament voted against the prime minister, the
whole ~ decided to step down.
a MP (n)
a minister (n)
cabinet (n) The Prime Minister and his ministers, e.g. the Foreign
Secretary and the Home Secretary, form the so-called
Minister of the
a department (n) A government consists of several ~s, e.g. the ~s of
education, the environment, trade, defence and the
a ~ store (n)
head of state (n) The chief representative of a country is called ~. In the
US, the ~ is also the head of government.
to head (v)
~ a meeting etc.
constitution (n) Unlike most European countries, the UK has no written
an unconstitutional
law violates the ~.
civil rights (n) ~ comprise basic freedoms such as the freedom of
speech, the freedom of the press and the freedom of
assembly, to name just a few.
= civil liberties (n)
equal (adj) The government's central aim was to promote ~
opportunities for women.
equality (n)
inequality (n)
an election (n)
the electorate (n)
The next parliamentary ~ will be held in 2013.
~ means all the citizens that are entitled to vote in a
general election.
a general ~ (n)
elect sb (v)
an election
campaign (n)
Both candidates for the presidency are preparing for a
lengthy and expensive ~.
campaign for /
against sth (v)
polling station (n)
polling booth (n)
A ~ is a building where people go to cast their vote in
an election. In a secret election, voters are entitled to
make use of a ~ so that nobody will know about their
The country is
going to the polls
this week.
constituency (n) The whole country is divided into ~ies, each of which
is represented by its own MP.
= an electoral district
representation (n)

~ is a system that gives each party in an election a
number of seats relative to the number of votes its
candidates have received.
In a ~ system, the candidate receiving the largest
number of votes in a constituency wins a seat in
parliament, even if he has not been able to win an
absolute majority.
be in proportion to
= the winner takes all
a majority system
of voting
a mayor (n) She became the first female ~ of Boston (= head of a
city or town).
local government
abstain (v)
(from voting)
More and more citizens choose to ~ from voting (= not
participate in a general election).
abstention (n)
a referendum (n) When a ~ is held, all the people of a country have the
possibility to vote on an important issue.
direct democracy
opposition (n) When the conservative government lost its majority, it
became the new ~.
oppose sth (v)
an opponent (of: n)
pass (a bill) (v) Parliament has just ~ed the latest bill on tax reform by a
majority of 219 to 213 votes.
= approve of a pro-
balance of power
The three branches of government, i.e. the executive,
legislature and the judiciary, ensure a ~.
a system of checks
and balances
impartial (adj) An ~ judge does not favour one person or party in
relation to another.
= unbiased (adj)
biased /one-sided
rule (n) India used to be under British ~ (a British colony) until
it gained independence from Britain in 1947.
the ~ of law (n)
~ a country (v)
a (political) party
The ruling ~ is most likely to win the next regional
a one-party rule /
abolish (v) The struggle to ~ slavery in the US has lasted for more
than a century.
abolition (n)



reunification (n) In the year 2000 our country is celebrating the tenth
anniversary of German ~
unify sth (v)
a predecessor (n) The Prime Minister has repeatedly claimed that he has
inherited the country's economic problems from his ~.
a successor (n)
a dictatorship (n) ~s are countries ruled by one or few leaders with
unlimited power.
totalitarian states (n)
a refugee (n) ~s are people trying to escape from political, religious,
or military persecution.
a refugee camp (n)
persecute sb (v)
persecution (n)
They were ~d because of their political beliefs.
- to experience / suffer from / escape ~ -
a persecution
complex (n)
oppression (n) Many refugees have left the country in order to escape
oppress sb (v)
a riot (n)
clash (with sb) (v)
A ~ broke out when police tried to stop the
demonstrators from marching on.
Demonstrators ~ed with the police when they weren't
allowed to march on.
= violent protest
a rioter (n)
a clash (n)
a curfew (n) The military leadership has imposed a dusk-to dawn ~. = everybody has to
stay indoors.
a civil war (n) More Americans died in the American ~ than in any
other war before or since.
a civilian (n)
assassinate sb (v) If famous or wealthy persons are ~d, they are murdered
for money or for political reasons.
an assassination
attempt (n)
revenge (n)
(v: by doing sth)
~ means deliberate punishment or injury in return for
what one has suffered.
The boy slapped his sister, who ~d by kicking him
under the table.
an act of ~ (n)
= take revenge on sb
capital punishment Several human rights organisations have called upon the
US to abolish ~ (= stop executing people).
= death penalty (n)
execution (n)
corporal punishment Some people have demanded that ~ should be
reintroduced for criminals.
= beat / whip sb.
impose (v: sth on sb)

sanctions (n)
The United Nations have ~d sanctions against North
Korea because of severe human rights violations.
~ are economic or military measures to enforce international
= place on sb as a
defuse (a crisis)
The UN has held talks with Israeli and Palestinian
leaders in order to ~ the crisis in the Middle east.
= reduce tension or
peaceful (adj) The UN tried to find a ~ solution to the conflict. violent (adj)
negotiate (with sb)
Their employer has refused to ~ with them about a
further pay increase.
= peace negotiations
a treaty (n) A ~ is a written agreement between two or more states. a peace ~
≠ contract
an enemy (n)
hostile (adj)
The two countries decided to combine forces against
their common ~.
~ troops have occupied one of the border towns.
≠ an opponent (n)
friendly / allied
conquer sth (v) The Normans ~ed England in 1066. William the
ambush (n) The thieves were lying in ~ for their victims. = a surprise attack
from a hidden position
withdraw (from)
The general has refused to ~ his troops from the town
in spite of heavy attacks.
 ~ money
from the bank
a cease-fire (n) The warring factions arranged a ~ so that details of a
peace treaty could be discussed.
= military order to
stop fighting
surrender (v) On 8th May 1945, the Third Reich ~ed to the allied
admit defeat
military service (n) The United States and Germany have introduced a
professional army, whereas other countries still have ~.
a conscientious
torture (n) The human-rights organisation Amnesty International
investigates the use of ~ on prisoners.
torture sb (v)