~ deals with observed facts and the relationships among
The twentieth century has witnessed a dramatic increase
in ~ progress.
a scientist (n)
the ~ community (n)
a scientist (n)
a researcher (n)
~s study a wide variety of subjects, such as clues to the
origin of the universe. Other ~s examine the structure of
cells in living organisms.
investigate (v) Still others ~ why we act the way we do, or try to solve
complicated mathematical problems.
= examine sth (v)
absorb sth (v) They concluded that further research is needed to
investigate how plants ~ different nutrients.
Plants ~ oxygen.
an engineer (n) Science attempts to explain how and why things happen.
~ are concerned with making things happen.
civil etc. engineers
discover sth (v) About 10,000 years ago, people first ~ed how to raise
animals and crops.
a discovery (n)
powered by In the early 1900's, farmers began using machines ~ by
gasoline or electricity.
a power plant (n) ~s, often called power stations, use coal, nuclear fuel, or
oil to produce electricity.
a ~ produces
an invention (n) Computers, lasers, plastics, refrigerators, and television
are only a few of the ~s that have transformed human
life in our century.
an inventor (n)
a discovery (n)
an antibiotic (n) ~s and other new drugs have helped control most
a drug / medicine
an advance in (n) As a result of ~s in agricultural technology, one U.S.
farmer today produces enough food for 101 people.
an assembly line (n) ~s depend on division of labour, in which small portions
of a job are divided among different workers.
a conveyor belt (n)
manufacturing (n) Similar developments have occurred in ~, mining, and
manufacture sth (v)
productivity (n) Technological developments have made it possible to
produce the same amount of goods and services with
less labour and have thus greatly increased ~.
benefit sb (v) The advance of technology has ~ted people in numerous
= profit from sth (v)
life expectancy (n)
infant mortality (n)
Above all, technology has raised ~ in industrial
countries to about 75 years, mainly by reducing ~
through sanitation and immunisation and better health
care and nutrition.
the average ~
repetitive (adj) ~, low-skill jobs can be boring for people to do for long
periods of time.
automated (adj) ~ machinery is well suited to these routine tasks, such as
assembling and packaging manufactured products.
be on autopilot
a robot Nowadays automobiles are painted by ~s using spray
paint that would be harmful to people.
a robotics firm
anticipate sth (v) On the other hand, many of the problems caused by
technology have not been ~d.
expect sth (v)
a side-effect (n) Once a new technology has been introduced on a wide
scale, people often find that it has some unexpected ~s.
a pollutant (n)
Most industrial countries face problems of air, water,
soil, and noise ~.
E.g., power plants that burn oil or other fuels to generate
electricity add millions of tons of ~s to the air annually.
pollute sth (v)
natural resources (n) Also, car production uses up iron and other ~.
a breakthrough (n) ~s in nuclear research, for instance, have led to the
development of powerful weapons of mass destruction.
a major ~
a challenge (n) One of the greatest ~s today is to spread technology's
benefits to the people of developing countries.
challenge sb (v)