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Flashcards in Postmenopausal & Pediatric Pelvis Deck (60)
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1

Why scan a postmenopausal pelvis?

1. abnormal bleeding
2. palpable pelvic mass
3. screen for cancer

2

Menses generally ceases between...

45-55 yrs old.

3

Postmenopausal bleeding may be due to normal...

atrophic endometrium.

4

The uterus becomes infantile with the most rapid decrease in the first...

5 yrs.

5

This is the most common gynecologic malignant disease after the age of 50.

endometrial cancer

6

The normal p.m. endometrium is...

atrophic, a thin echogenic line.

7

If the p.m. woman is not bleeding, the endometrial threshold is...

8 mm.

8

If the p.m. woman is bleeding, the endometrial threshold is...

4 mm.

9

If the p.m. woman is receiving HRT, the endometrial threshold may be up to...

8 mm.

10

HRT increases endometrial ___, endometrial ___, polyps and cancer.

thickness, hyperplasia

11

Why is HRT given?

To protect against fractures and alleviate menopause symptoms.

12

What kind of HRT is given to women with their uterus?

progesterone and estrogen

13

What kind of HRT is given to women who've had a hysterectomy?

just estrogen

14

Do not take HRT if:

1. previous thromboembolic disease
2. abnormal LFTs/liver disease
3. breast cancer
4. endometrial cancer
5. fibroids
6. endometriosis

15

In p.m. women who do not take estrogens, the endometrium is usually...

thin, atrophic, <4 mm

16

This drugs are used in adjunctive therapy in women who have breast cancer.

Tamoxifen and Megestrol Acetate

17

What side effect does Tamoxifen have?

thickened cystic endometrium, increased risk of endometrial carcinoma

18

Any bleeding more than ___ after the last mentstrual period is called 'p.m. bleeding'.

six months

19

The two most common causes of pm bleeding are...

1. exogenous estrogen administration
2. endometrial atrophy

20

In pm women an enlarged uterus is usually secondary to ___.

fibroids

21

Uterine enlargement is a late finding in ___.

endometrial cancer

22

___ is a late finding in endometrial cancer.

Uterine enlargement

23

Uterine calcifications are seen in women with ___ and in women with ___.

degenerated fibroids, arcuate artery calcification

24

These arteries run transversely in the myometrium.

uterine arcuate artery

25

These are visualized as either diffuse or focal thickening of the endometrium.

endometrial polyps

26

This diagnosis is suggested when the endometrium is thickened with a heterogeneous echotexture and ill-defined margins between the endometrium and the myometrium.

endometrial cancer

27

Demonstration of myometrial invasion is clear evidence of...

endometrial cancer.

28

Patients with advanced endometrial cancer have ___ of the uterus, a ___ uterine contour, and mixed ___ of the myometrium.

enlargement, lobular, echogenicity

29

Name four sonographic abnormalities of the p.m. uterus.

1. enlargement
2. calcifications
3. polyps
4. endometrial cancer

30

Name two reasons to see calcifications in the uterus.

1. degenerating fibroids
2. calcified arcuate arteries