PPt. 17: Cell Reproduction Unit 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PPt. 17: Cell Reproduction Unit 3 Deck (50):
1

The process by which one cell gives rise to two or more cells, usually called daughter cells

Cell division

2

The daughter cells or resulting organisms are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell that produced them

Asexual reproduction

3

Results in cells or organisms that are not genetically identical to each other or to the parent that produced them

Sexual reproduction

4

Cell splits into two daughter cells, each containing same genetic information

Binary fission

5

Division of nucleus, results in the formation of two nuclei, each containing identical sets of chromosomes

Mitosis

6

The division of cytoplasm into 2 new cells

Cytokinesis

7

Eggs and sperm known as _______

Gametes

8

Gametes are produced through
A. Meiosis
B. Mitosis
C. Asexual Reproduction

B. Mitosis

9

Orderly sequence of activities that make up life of cell, from one division to next

Cell cycle

10

Long period of growth during which the cell replicates its DNA, followed by binary fission

Prokaryotic cell cycle

11

DNA is replicated during ______ phase

Growth

12

Alleles come from _______

Mutations

13

More complex, contain more DNA, DNA is packaged differently

Eukaryotic cell cycle

14

Sections of DNA that contain information that can be translated into action by cell

Genes

15

How is all of that DNA packaged so tightly into chromosomes and a tiny nucleus?

The fact that certain proteins compact chromosomal DNA into the microscopic space of the eukaryotic nucleus

16

Proteins, provide energy to fold DNA

Histones

17

Resulting DNA, protein complex

Chromatin

18

Chromatin is __% DNA and __% Proteins

40, 60

19

Basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes

Nucleosome

20

Consists of approximately 146 base pairs of DNA wrapped in left-hand superhelical turns around a histone octamer

Core particle

21

Entire set of chromosomes contained within a cell

Karyotope

22

Cells that contain two copies of each chromosome

Diploid

23

Chromosomes within same gene

Homologous

24

Cell acquires nutrients from its surroundings, grows and duplicates genetic material

Interphase

25

Period where chromosomes are duplicated

Synthesis phase

26

Two strands of DNA, attached to each other at a region called the centromere

Chromatids

27

Protein structure for attaching chromatids to microtubules to move them

Kinetochore

28

The chromosomes shorten, thicken and become visisble with a light microscope

Prophase

29

Spindle fibers move duplicated chromosomes so they line up along the equator of the cell

Metaphase

30

Sister chromatids separate, becoming independent daughter chromosomes

Anaphase

31

Reverse of prophase, spindle microtubules disintegrate, nuclear membrane forms

Telophase

32

Vesicles from Golgi complex fuse together

Cell plate

33

When cell cycle goes wrong=_______

Cancer

34

Causes of cancer

Radiation, Heredity, Pesticides, Viruses

35

Leads to production of sex cells

Meiosis

36

Containing one chromosome

Haploid

37

Diploid condition restored with a zygote

Fertilization

38

Pairs of duplicated homologous chromosomes line up side by side so they line up their entire length

Prophase I

39

Consist of 4 chromatids bound together

Tetrads

40

2 chromosomes bound together

Bivalents

41

Spindle microtubules move the paired homologous chromosomes to equator of cell

Metaphase I

42

Spindle microtubules pull one duplicated chromosome from each homologous pair to each dividing cell

Anaphase I

43

Spindle microtubules disappear and the nuclear membrane is reformed around each cluster

Telophase I

44

Immediately after Meiosis I, identical to Mitosis

Meiosis II

45

Nuclear membranes reform to enclose each set of chromosomes, cytokinesis takes place

Telophase II

46

Homologous chromosomes come together

Crossing over

47

Line up along equator

Independent assortment

48

Fusion of gametes to form a new diploid individual, increase in genetic variability

Fertilization

49

Number of cells produced through Mitosis

2

50

Number of cells produced through Meiosis

4