PPt.11: The Chemistry of Life Unit 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PPt.11: The Chemistry of Life Unit 2 Deck (44):
1

How many naturally occurring elements are on earth

90

2

Basic indivisible unit

Atom

3

Positively charged (+1), found in the nucleus

Protons

4

Neutral particles found in the nucleus

Neutrons

5

Negatively charged (-1), found outside of the nucleus

Electrons

6

Refers to the number of protons in the nucleus

Atomic Number

7

Refers to the approximate mass of the atom, which is equal to the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

Atomic Mass

8

Does not change form into other atomic forms

Stable

9

Unstable, change over time

Radioactive

10

Comparing ratio of radioisotopes to stable product is how you...

Determine age of objects

11

Each atom has a nucleus around which are electrons found in orbitals, located in the shells

Bohr Model

12

Volume within which an electron can be found 90% of the time

Orbital

13

The distance outside the nucleus that these electrons are located in

Shells

14

If an electron gains or loses energy, it does so in ______ amounts

Discrete

15

The shells of some elements can have as many as __ electrons

32

16

When the outermost orbital is filled with the maximum # of electrons

Most stable configuration

17

Displays the elements based on their atomic numbers

Periodic Table

18

Charged atoms

Ions

19

Positively charged ions

Cations

20

Negatively charged ions

Anions

21

Atoms of most elements possess the property of binding to other atoms to form new and more complex molecules

Chemical Bonds

22

Gaining or losing the required number of electrons in the outermost shell

Ionic Bonds

23

Does not involve complete transfer of electrons, rather the sharing of pairs of electrons

Covalent Bonds

24

In covalent bonds, if it is shared equally it results in a _________ covalent bond

Nonpolar

25

In covalent bonds, if it is not shared equally between two different molecules it is a ______ covalent bond

Polar

26

H-H is a

Single bond

27

O=O is a

Double bond

28

How many covalent bonds in Hydrogen

1

29

How many covalent bonds in Oxygen

2

30

How many covalent bonds in Nitrogen

3

31

How many covalent bonds in Carbon

4

32

A single hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to an oxygen or nitrogen is attracted to another atom
-relatively weak, does not take much energy to break

Hydrogen Bonds

33

Interaction between nonpolar molecules

Hydrophobic Interactions

34

Increased Hydrogen Ion concentration when dissolved in water

Acid

35

Increased Hydroxide concentration when dissolved in water

Bases

36

Covalent bond in water molecule break spontaneously

Ionization

37

Negative logarithm of concentration of hydrogen ions

pH

38

pH scale

Runs from 0-14, 7 is neutral

39

Less than 7

Acidic

40

Greater than 7

Basic

41

2 is a

Strong acid

42

6 is a

Weak acid

43

14 is a

Strong base

44

8 is a

Weak base