Flashcards in Pregnancy Deck (30)
___ ___ are the most common cause of infant mortality in the USA.
Environmental substances that cause birth defects are called ___. These include: drugs, meds, infections, chemicals.
A ___ can cause abnormalities of structure or function, growth retardation, or fetal demise.
Teratogen medications to avoid during pregnancy include:
isotretinoin (Accutane), acitretin (Soriatane), thalidomide (Thalomid), lenalidomide (Revlimid)
Other drugs to avoid in pregnancy:
ACE inhibitors (enalapril or captopril), androgens and testosterone products, anticancer drugs, antifolic acid drugs, warfarin, carbamazepine, lithium, phenytoin, valproic acid, streptomycin, tetracyclines
Studies in pregnant women have not demonstrated a risk to the fetus in the first or later trimesters is known as category ___. This includes PNV and levothyroxine.
This fetal risk category has no evidence of risk in humans, but has shown risk in animal studies. This includes acetaminophen, cephalosporins, PCN's, NSAIDS, insulin, H2 blockers, metformin.
This fetal risk category can not be excluded. This includes: TMP/SMX, BB's, antidepressants.
This fetal risk category shows evidence of human fetal risk. This includes lithium, phenytoin, NSAIDS, paroxetine.
This fetal risk category shows that risks clearly outweighs any possible benefit (contraindicated). This includes: retinoids, warfarin, thalidomide, alcohol, cocaine, live vaccines
Things you can do to prevent birth defects: don't ___ or ___, take ___ ___, screen and tx ___, avoid kid ___, avoid cat ___, avoid ___, avoid poorly cooked ___, keep ___ current.
smoke, drink, folic acid, DM/GDM, spit, litter, rodents, meat, immunizations
Important to take prenatal ___ during pregnancy.
___ ___ has a greater need during pregnancy and should be started ___ months prior to intended conception and continued throughout pregnancy.
folic acid, 3
Folic acid reduces the risk of ___ ___ defects.
To avoid hyperemesis/n/v, eat ___, frequent meals, avoid ___, ___ root.
small, triggers, ginger
Meds used for mild nausea include:
pyridoxine (vitamin b-6), meclizine (Antivert), dimenhydrinate (Dramamine), doxylamine (OTC Unisom), H2 blockers (ranitidine), metoclopramide (Reglan)
Meds used for unrelieved nausea:
promethazine (Phenergan), prochlorperazine (Compazine), ondansetron (Zofran)
For pain relief in pregnancy, ___ is DOC. Avoid ___ and ___.
acetaminophen, ASA, NSAIDS
For cough/cold preparations, ___ is DOC in pregnancy.
Avoid the herb ___ during pregnancy d/t safety concerns in the fetus.
Beta-agonists (albuterol), ICS's (fluticasone), and combo MDI's (Advair) are all okay during ___.
___ generation antihistamines such as diphenhydramine and ___ generation antihistamines like loratadine and cetirizine are okay to use during ___.
First, second, pregnancy
___ is the most common antidepressant class used in pregnancy. These include:
SSRI's, Prozac/fluoxetine, Zoloft/sertraline, Celexa/citalopram, Lexapro/excitalopram
Avoid the medications ___ and ___ for depressed pregnancy pts. Category ___.
paxil, wellbutrin, D
___ is the best medication to use for PP depression while breastfeeding.
Antibx to avoid in pregnancy include:
tetracyclines, streptomycin, and kanamycin
UTI in pregnancy if left untreated can lead to ___ and/or ___.
Antibx DOC used to tx UTI in pregnancy include: ___. Others include ___ and ___. Avoid ___, esp during 3rd trimester b/c it is category ___.
nitrofurantoin, PCN, cephalosporin, bactrim, C
Malformation occurs d/t ___. Deformation occurs d/t ___. Disruption occurs in ___.
genetics, environment, utero