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Flashcards in Preliminary Traditions Deck (24)
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1

Judaism: Life of Abraham

Lived 2000BC. First named Abram, renamed Abraham by God. Believed in 1 God.
God called him to leave his homeland, promising to make him a great nation. Adopted nomadic lifestyle.
First of the Patriarchs; 1st to receive covenant from God.
Fathered Ishmael (through Hagar) & Isaac (through Sarah).

2

Judaism: Moses, Exodus & giving of the Torah

Moses was born to a Hebrew slave family in Egypt. Brought up by the Pharaoh's daughter. Ran away after killing an Egyptian.
God spoke to Moses via a burning bush; Moses went back to Egypt to free the Israelites.
The Pharaoh wouldn't listen => 10 Plagues
Israelites set free. Given the Torah (God's law) at Mt Sinai

3

Features of Orthodox Judaism

Traditional worship in Hebrew
Traditional observances of Shabbat e.g. not driving
Separated men & women seating in synagogue

4

Features of Conservative Judaism

Traditional, but welcomes modernity
Liberal in belief, conservative in practice
Service in Hebrew; men & women sit together
Permits electricity on Shabbat
Permits women rabbis

5

Features of Progressive Judaism

Radical
Adopts Torah to modern-day life
Equality of women
Local language used in service

6

Judaism: Principle beliefs

Belief in one God => all-powerful, creator, ruler, etc.
Moral law prescribed by God => Judaism is lived through this observance
Covenant given to the Jews

7

Hebrew Scriptures

Tenach (Torah, Neviim, Ketuvim - Law, Prophets, wise words)
& Talmud (commentary on Torah)

8

Judaism Ethics

Commandments of the Torah - 613 Mitzvot
Prophetic Vision - Social Justice, Tikkun Olam
Book of Proverbs - wisdom, righteousness, purity & generosity

9

Tikkun Olam

"To repair the world" - giving alms, random acts of kindness

10

Shabbat

Sunset Friday - Sunset Saturday
Instruction of Torah
Remembering God who brought them out of Egypt
No work allowed to be done

11

Describe Shabbat

Before sunset Friday, the woman lights 2 candles. A blessing is said => this is called KABBALAT SHABBAT - 'Welcoming Shabbat'
Synagogue service
KIDDUSH said over wine. Another blessing said over CHALLAH
After dinner, prayer => BIRKAT HA-MAZON
Torah study, bed.

12

Christianity: Historical Context

Palestine occupied by Romans
Jewish context allowed
Jews oppressed
Very multicultural

13

Jesus Christ

Was a Jew, born of a Virgin. Brought up Jewish
Baptised by John
Began ministry age 30, lasting 3 years
Arrested for religious uprising, sentenced & crucified.
Rose after 3 days. 40 days later ascended to heaven

14

Christianity: Development

12 Apostles & Paul (& others) started spreading the word
See Paul's letters & Acts of Apostles

15

Main Denominations of Christianity

Catholicism => central authority Pope. Emphasis on sacraments
Anglicanism => central authority Archbishop of Canterbury. Ranges in similarity to Catholicism
Orthodoxy => emphasis on Eucharist; many icons. Often in Greek
Pentecostalism => emphasis on Holy Spirit. "Baptism of the Spirit" -> receive gift of tongues. Value healing & prophecy
Protestantism => Reformation against corruption in Catholic church. Less liturgical. Emphasis on teaching words of Jesus

16

Christianity: Principal Beliefs

Divinity & humanity of Jesus Christ
Death & resurrection of Jesus Christ
Nature of God & Trinity
Revelation
Salvation

17

Christianity: Sacred texts

Bible => Old & New Testaments

18

Christianity: Ethical teachings

Ten Commandments
Beatitudes
Jesus' Commandment of love

19

Christianity: Personal Devotion

Prayer: Meditation, Vocal, Mental, sung...
Talking to God, because God relates to each person
Can follow a set pattern e.g. Hail Mary

20

Origins of Islam

Pre-Islam: Arabia full of nomadic, warring tribes. Worship of many gods common. Allah was a god, but not focus of worship
Formed by Prophet Muhammad, worship of one God, Allah
Message hampered by violence & rejection => he preached kindness to the oppressed
MECCAN PERIOD
NIGHT JOURNEY => Muhammad taken in spirit to Jerusalem & then to heaven to stand before Allah
MEDINA PERIOD
TREATY
Developed under 4 rightly guided Caliphs

21

Islam: Principal Beliefs

Tawhid => Allah is ONE God
Angels
Books of Allah => Qur'an
Rusal => God's messengers
Akhira => Life after death
Fate/predestination

22

Islam: Sacred texts

Qur'an & Hadith

23

Islam: Core Ethics

Qur'an
Sunna & Hadith => what did the Prophet do?
Ijma' => consensus
Qiyas
What is Halal & what is Haraam?

24

Five Pillars of Islam

Shahada - declaration of faith
Salah - prayer
Zakah - almsgiving
Sawm - fasting
Hajj - pilgrimage to Mecca