Flashcards in Preliminary Traditions Deck (24)
Judaism: Life of Abraham
Lived 2000BC. First named Abram, renamed Abraham by God. Believed in 1 God.
God called him to leave his homeland, promising to make him a great nation. Adopted nomadic lifestyle.
First of the Patriarchs; 1st to receive covenant from God.
Fathered Ishmael (through Hagar) & Isaac (through Sarah).
Judaism: Moses, Exodus & giving of the Torah
Moses was born to a Hebrew slave family in Egypt. Brought up by the Pharaoh's daughter. Ran away after killing an Egyptian.
God spoke to Moses via a burning bush; Moses went back to Egypt to free the Israelites.
The Pharaoh wouldn't listen => 10 Plagues
Israelites set free. Given the Torah (God's law) at Mt Sinai
Features of Orthodox Judaism
Traditional worship in Hebrew
Traditional observances of Shabbat e.g. not driving
Separated men & women seating in synagogue
Features of Conservative Judaism
Traditional, but welcomes modernity
Liberal in belief, conservative in practice
Service in Hebrew; men & women sit together
Permits electricity on Shabbat
Permits women rabbis
Features of Progressive Judaism
Adopts Torah to modern-day life
Equality of women
Local language used in service
Judaism: Principle beliefs
Belief in one God => all-powerful, creator, ruler, etc.
Moral law prescribed by God => Judaism is lived through this observance
Covenant given to the Jews
Tenach (Torah, Neviim, Ketuvim - Law, Prophets, wise words)
& Talmud (commentary on Torah)
Commandments of the Torah - 613 Mitzvot
Prophetic Vision - Social Justice, Tikkun Olam
Book of Proverbs - wisdom, righteousness, purity & generosity
"To repair the world" - giving alms, random acts of kindness
Sunset Friday - Sunset Saturday
Instruction of Torah
Remembering God who brought them out of Egypt
No work allowed to be done
Before sunset Friday, the woman lights 2 candles. A blessing is said => this is called KABBALAT SHABBAT - 'Welcoming Shabbat'
KIDDUSH said over wine. Another blessing said over CHALLAH
After dinner, prayer => BIRKAT HA-MAZON
Torah study, bed.
Christianity: Historical Context
Palestine occupied by Romans
Jewish context allowed
Was a Jew, born of a Virgin. Brought up Jewish
Baptised by John
Began ministry age 30, lasting 3 years
Arrested for religious uprising, sentenced & crucified.
Rose after 3 days. 40 days later ascended to heaven
12 Apostles & Paul (& others) started spreading the word
See Paul's letters & Acts of Apostles
Main Denominations of Christianity
Catholicism => central authority Pope. Emphasis on sacraments
Anglicanism => central authority Archbishop of Canterbury. Ranges in similarity to Catholicism
Orthodoxy => emphasis on Eucharist; many icons. Often in Greek
Pentecostalism => emphasis on Holy Spirit. "Baptism of the Spirit" -> receive gift of tongues. Value healing & prophecy
Protestantism => Reformation against corruption in Catholic church. Less liturgical. Emphasis on teaching words of Jesus
Christianity: Principal Beliefs
Divinity & humanity of Jesus Christ
Death & resurrection of Jesus Christ
Nature of God & Trinity
Christianity: Sacred texts
Bible => Old & New Testaments
Christianity: Ethical teachings
Jesus' Commandment of love
Christianity: Personal Devotion
Prayer: Meditation, Vocal, Mental, sung...
Talking to God, because God relates to each person
Can follow a set pattern e.g. Hail Mary
Origins of Islam
Pre-Islam: Arabia full of nomadic, warring tribes. Worship of many gods common. Allah was a god, but not focus of worship
Formed by Prophet Muhammad, worship of one God, Allah
Message hampered by violence & rejection => he preached kindness to the oppressed
NIGHT JOURNEY => Muhammad taken in spirit to Jerusalem & then to heaven to stand before Allah
Developed under 4 rightly guided Caliphs
Islam: Principal Beliefs
Tawhid => Allah is ONE God
Books of Allah => Qur'an
Rusal => God's messengers
Akhira => Life after death
Islam: Sacred texts
Qur'an & Hadith
Islam: Core Ethics
Sunna & Hadith => what did the Prophet do?
Ijma' => consensus
What is Halal & what is Haraam?