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Flashcards in Principles of Immunisation Deck (17):

Principles of passive immunity

Specific and has immunological memory


Principles of active immunity

It is specific as antibodies as produces to fight infection but it does not have a memory


Advantages of passive immunity

Immediate protection and quick resolution


Disadvantage of passive immunity

-Short term effect and no immunological memory
-Can cause serum sickness - incoming antibody recognised as a foreign antigen and results in anaphylaxis
-Graft vs host disease (cell grafts only) - incoming immune cells reject receipient


Examples of passive immunity

Maternal immunoglobulins can be transferred to the foetus or neonate naturally involving the neonatal Fc receptor (Ab binds to it)

Venomous bite - passive infusion of antibody specific to toxin

Rabies immunoglobulin - post exposure prophylaxis with vaccination


How can you acquire active immunity?

Exposure or infection and vaccination


Principles of active immunity

-Antigen stimulate immune response
-Long term immunity
-Immunological memory
-No intermediate effect, but faster and better response to next antigenic encounter


What is the function of vaccinations/immunisations?

It's the administration of antigenic material (vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen


Common diseases vaccinated against

Measles (childhood disease causing rash), mumps (leads to meningitis) and rubella (dangerous) to unborn children



Describe two types of vaccinations

-Killed whole organism - target organism killed effectively in use of vaccine
-Attenuated whole organism - avirulent strain to stimulate natural infection
-Subunit - purified antigen (no viral nucleic acids
-Toxoid - treated with formalin to render it inert


Contraindication of vaccination

Temporary: febrile illness and pregnancy

Permanent: allergy and immunocompromised as may develop disease from strain


What is herd immunity?

Aim of vaccination is to protect the individual which in turn also reduces risk of unvaccinated individuals being exposed to infection and those who can't be vaccinated still benefit


What makes a good vaccine?

Potent antibody, CD8 T+ helper and CD4+ T helper response and memory response


Describe childhood immunisation schedule

2, 3, 4 months old - diphtheria, polio, tetanus and pertussis

12-23 month - measles, mumps, rubella

2/3/4yrs - influenza

12-13yrs - HPV in females

13-18yrs - diphtheria, tetanus, polio, neisseria meningitis C


What are non-routine vaccinations given at birth

Tuberculosis and hep B (if mother hep B pos.)


Examples of vaccines given to travellers

-Hep A
-Yellow fever


What do antigenic shift mutations give rise to?

Influenza viruses in two different species and confection of the virus allows genetic reassortment to give rise to novel antigenic ally distinct virus particles - new strain