Principles of toxicology Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Principles of toxicology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Principles of toxicology Deck (29):
1

Teratogenesis is the

creation of birth defects

2

A teratogen is a

substance that can induce birth defects

3

The teratogenic effect of any substance depends on

the developmental timing of the exposure

4

What are the four manifestations of deviant development

Functional deficit
growth retardation
malformation
Death

5

What period of organogenesis is teratogens most potent

b/t 3rd & 8th weeks of gestation

6

What is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation

fetal alcohol syndrome

7

What is the best way to prevent further absorption of a toxic compound

eliminate exposure

8

Ipecac syrup works by

irritating G.I tracts
activating CTZ

9

Apomorphine is a

dopamine agonist that works directly on CTZ

10

Inhibiton of toxication involves

inhibiting the enzymes involved in metabolizing xenobiotics into its toxic product

11

Name two competetive inhibitors of alchohol dehydrogenase

ethanol

fomepizole

*alcohol dehydrogenase is the enzyme involved in converting alchohol into toxic aldehydes

12

Enhancement of metabolism is used to tx toxicity by

accelerating metabolism of a toxic substance by inducing the appropriate p450 system

13

Name an example of enhancement of metabolism

cyanide poisoning and treatment with amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate

14

Name five heavy metal chelators

edatate disodium
dimercaprol
succimer
deferoxamine
penicillamine/trientine

15

edetate disodium tx what metal poisoning

lead

* L.E.D

16

deFEroxamine tx what metal poisoning

iron

17

peniCillamine/trientine tx what metal poisoning

copper

18

Antivenins are

antibodies aganist venoms

19

One danger with using antibodies as inctivators include

serum sickness

*typer III hypersenstivity rxn

20

Define xenobiotics

principles of toxicology as they pertain to the behavior of foreign substances

21

Xenobiotics are modified by phase I/phase II rxn, what are three possible changes

detoxification-rendered less toxic

toxic xenobiotic>>converted to another toxic

toxication>>harmless xenobiotic>>toxic

22

What are the four mechanisms of toxicity

Large molecular damage (protein, lipid,carbs)

Reactive species (ROS)

Inflammatory and immune mediated

Enzyme and receptor mediated

23

What is apoptosis

failure of cellular repair mechanism resulting in shrinkage, nuclear condensation and formation of apoptic bodies

*just individual cell affected

24

What is necrosis

enzymatic digestion of cellular contents, denaturation of cellular proteins and disruption of cellular membrane>>inflammatory attracting cells>>nearby damage to healthy cells

25

Following cellular damage, a target organ system can respond in three ways

regenerate

not regenerate

form cancer cells

26

Name three genes involved in carcinogenesis

proto-oncogens

tumor suppressor genes

tumor promoters

27

List 4 toxicokinetic-based treatments to minimize patient harm

Prevention of absorption (ipecac syrup)

Inhibition of toxication (ethanlol)

Enhancement of metabolism (Mucomyst)

Enhancement of elimiation (hemodialysis)

28

List two types of poison inactivators

Heavy metal chelators

antivenins

29

There are four pharmacologic treatment of toxin ingestion. List and describe them

Pharm Antagonism----Naloxone

Pharm enhancement of body fx----physostigmine

Active Site Restoration---methylene blue for methemoglobinemia

Metabolic pathway alternatives----vitamin K tx for warfarin poisioning