Flashcards in Protein Deck (19)
What makes protein chemically different than fat and CHO?
protein has Nitrogen as well as C, H, and O
Define dipeptide, tripeptide, and polypeptide
dipeptide: 2 amino acids
Tripeptide: 3 amino acids
Polypeptide: 3-100 amino acids
How many amino acids are there?
9 out of 20 total are essential
What makes the structure of one amino acid different form another?
side groups (called r groups) are what make each amino acid differ in side, shape and electric charge
What are the functions of proteins from our bodies?
What are the functions of proteins from our diets?
uses amino acids to make proteins and if there is excess amino acids the body will metabolize in another way
What are the two food groups that has the most protein serving?
Dairy and meat, fish and nuts
Complete vs. Incomplete proteins
complete: contains ample amount of all 9 essential amino acids and is typical in animal foods
incomplete: deficient or low in one or more essential amino acid
Example of protein complementation
combining two lower quality protein foods to get all 9 amino acids
What contributes to the amino acid pool?
cell breakdown and diet
What are the 5 potential ways the body can use amino acids?
1. Make proteins needed in body
2. Convert into neurotransmitters
3. Convert into glucose
4. Convert into fat
5. Use for energy
separating the amino group (NH2) from the carbon skeleton
What happens to nitrogen once it is removed
use of energy
What is the general recommendation for % of total cals from protein?
10-20%, about 50-100 grams per day
How many grams of protein is found in common food?
Milk and Dairy: 6-8g
Which scenarios result in increased protein requirements?
pregnancy, athletes and regular exercisers, growth, illness or injury, low calorie diets
What are potential nutrient deficiencies for vegetarians and vegans?
protein, iron, zinc, calcium, B12, vitamin D
What is the only proven health benefit for soy?
source of higher quality proteins and contains no cholesterol or saturated fats