Flashcards in Vitamins & Minerals Deck (40)
Which vitamins are water soluble?
Vitamin C and the 8 "B" Vitamins
Which vitamins are fat soluble?
Vitamins A, E, D, K
adding back some vitamins and minerals lost during milling
adding vitamins and minerals beyond what is naturally in the food.
Main functions of vitamin D
Plays a major role in bone health by regulating calcium levels in blood
What are two general ways to meet daily vitamin D recommendations?
the sun and food sources
Which vitamins and minerals are considered antioxidants?
Vitamins: A, C, and E
Minerals: selenium, copper, manganese and zinc
Given the state of research, should antioxidants be supplemented?
Get your antioxidants from food with a balanced and varied diet (a combination of antioxidants likley more effective than individual)
What is the main function of vitamin K?
Explain the general characteristics of water soluble vitamins.
mainly function as a coenzymes, very prevalent in energy metabolism
absorption rates range from 50-90%
generally readily excreted by kidneys
Functions of Thiamin (B1)
Thiamin functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates and branched-chain amino acids
Functions of Riboflavin (B2)
a coenzyme (main forms are FMN and FAD)
Functions of Niacin (B3)
a coenzyme in more than 50 metabolic reactions (NAD from Krebs cycle is an example)
Functions of Pantothenic Avid (B5)
breakdown of fats and carbohydrates for energy, critical to the manufacture of red blood cells, also sex and stress-related hormones produced in the adrenal glands
Functions of Vitamin B6
coenzyme involved in over 100 enzyme reactions, mostly involving protein metabolism
Functions of Biotin
necessary for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids (component of acetyl Coa)
Functions of Folate
DNA synthesis and neurotrainsmitter formation
Define intravascular fluid
fluid outside the cell
Define interstitial fluid
fluid outside the cell
Define intracellular fluid
fluid within the cell
What are the main 2 minerals involved in fluid balance?
sodium and potassium
Explain the 3 steps of the sweat mechanism.
1. Water in cell absorb any excess heat and heated water travels through blood to the skin surface
2. Body secretes heated water via perspiration
3. Skin is cooled as perspiration evaporates
What role do ADH and aldosterone have in fluid balance?
aldosterone and ADH signal the kidneys to retain sodium and water, respectively, thus increasing blood volume
Name major minerals (7)
calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, magnesium, and chlorine
What are systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
Systolic: pressure in arteries when heart pumps
Diastolic: pressure in arteries when heart is relaxed
What is considered normal blood pressure? What is considered high?
What factors affect peripheral resistance?
increase blood volume, thickness of blood, tonicity (flexibility) of vessel wall, and radius of blood vessel
What are the health problems associated with high blood pressure?
heart attacks, strokes, congestive heart failure, poor circulation, vision problems, kidney disease
What are the 4 preventive measures for hypertension?
1. lose weight
3. reduce alcohol