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Flashcards in Vitamins & Minerals Deck (40)
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1

Which vitamins are water soluble?

Vitamin C and the 8 "B" Vitamins

2

Which vitamins are fat soluble?

Vitamins A, E, D, K

3

Define enrichment.

adding back some vitamins and minerals lost during milling

4

Define fortification.

adding vitamins and minerals beyond what is naturally in the food.

5

Main functions of vitamin D

Plays a major role in bone health by regulating calcium levels in blood

6

What are two general ways to meet daily vitamin D recommendations?

the sun and food sources

7

Which vitamins and minerals are considered antioxidants?

Vitamins: A, C, and E

Minerals: selenium, copper, manganese and zinc

8

Given the state of research, should antioxidants be supplemented?

Get your antioxidants from food with a balanced and varied diet (a combination of antioxidants likley more effective than individual)

9

What is the main function of vitamin K?

blood clotting

10

Explain the general characteristics of water soluble vitamins.

mainly function as a coenzymes, very prevalent in energy metabolism

absorption rates range from 50-90%

generally readily excreted by kidneys


11

Functions of Thiamin (B1)

Thiamin functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates and branched-chain amino acids

12

Functions of Riboflavin (B2)

a coenzyme (main forms are FMN and FAD)

13

Functions of Niacin (B3)

a coenzyme in more than 50 metabolic reactions (NAD from Krebs cycle is an example)

14

Functions of Pantothenic Avid (B5)

breakdown of fats and carbohydrates for energy, critical to the manufacture of red blood cells, also sex and stress-related hormones produced in the adrenal glands

15

Functions of Vitamin B6

coenzyme involved in over 100 enzyme reactions, mostly involving protein metabolism

16

Functions of Biotin

necessary for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids (component of acetyl Coa)

17

Functions of Folate

DNA synthesis and neurotrainsmitter formation

18

Define intravascular fluid

fluid outside the cell

19

Define interstitial fluid

fluid outside the cell

20

Define intracellular fluid

fluid within the cell

21

What are the main 2 minerals involved in fluid balance?

sodium and potassium

22

Explain the 3 steps of the sweat mechanism.

1. Water in cell absorb any excess heat and heated water travels through blood to the skin surface

2. Body secretes heated water via perspiration

3. Skin is cooled as perspiration evaporates

23

What role do ADH and aldosterone have in fluid balance?

aldosterone and ADH signal the kidneys to retain sodium and water, respectively, thus increasing blood volume

24

Name major minerals (7)

calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, magnesium, and chlorine

25

What are systolic and diastolic blood pressure?

Systolic: pressure in arteries when heart pumps

Diastolic: pressure in arteries when heart is relaxed

26

What is considered normal blood pressure? What is considered high?

Normal: 120/80

High: 140/90

27

What factors affect peripheral resistance?

increase blood volume, thickness of blood, tonicity (flexibility) of vessel wall, and radius of blood vessel

28

What are the health problems associated with high blood pressure?

heart attacks, strokes, congestive heart failure, poor circulation, vision problems, kidney disease

29

What are the 4 preventive measures for hypertension?

1. lose weight
2. exercise
3. reduce alcohol
4. diet

30

Define “salt sensitivity”.

correlation with increased salt intake and high blood pressure