Flashcards in Energy Balance Deck (28)
What's the difference between positive energy balance and negative energy balance?
positive energy balance is weight gain (energy = calories)
while negative energy balance is weight loss
What's the difference between hunger and appetite?
hunger is driven by a physiological (internal) drive to eat, while appetite is a psychological (external) drive to eat (craving)
What is leptin, and what affect does leptin have on desire to eat?
A hormone produced by the adipose tissue that decreases. desire to eat
Is hunger or appetite most likely to cause overeating?
What are some examples of external (psychologic) influences that disrupt our ability to identify when to stop eating?
sight, smell and taste of food, presence of others and setting of meal, anxiety or stress, climate, memories, free food, size of plates or packaging
What are the three components of total energy expenditure? (energy out)
physical actives, thermic effect of food, and basal metabolism
What is basal metabolism and what percentage of overall calories burned each day does it represent?
the energy (calories) burned to maintain all involuntary processes that keep the body alive. roughly 60-70% of the total calories burned each day
Which factors increase basal metabolic rate (BMR)? Which lower BMR?
periods of growth, amount of muscle, gender, fever, smoking and caffeine, hormones and extreme environment temperatures
age, during sleep metabolic rate is at its lowest, and fasting/starving
What is the thermic effect of food and what percentage of overall calorie needs does it represent?
calories used to digest, absorb, and metabolize food nutrients
roughly 5-10% above the total basal energy used
How many calories are recommended for a non-exerciser, a moderately active person and a heavy exerciser?
25 calories if not exercising
30 calories for moderate
35 calories for heavy
Name the four methods for deterring appropriate weight.
heights/weight charts, BMI, body fat %, waist circumference
What is the limitation of the BMI as an indicator of overall health? At what BMI does health risk increase?
It doesn't take into account muscle tissue vs. fat or other health indicators
Health risk increase when BMI is greater than 25
What is the BMI for someone who is classified as overweight and obese?
overweight = 25-29.9 BMI
obese = 30 BMI
What factors should be considered when setting a healthy weight goal?
weight history and family weight history, current health status, how do your clothes fit, energy levels
Name the 5 methods of assessing body fat.
fat folds, underwater weighing, bioelectric impedance, Bod Pod, DEXA
What's the difference between android obesity and gynecoid obesity and which is associated with health problems?
Android (upper body) obesity is associated with heart disease, HTN, and Type 2 Diabetes, abdominal fat is released right into the liver
Gynecoid (lower-body) obesity is encouraged by estrogen and progesterone, after menopause upper-body obesity appears, less heath risk than upper body
What is the Set Point theory?
No matter how hard a person tries their body resists weight change and any weight loss is temporary
What are the chances a child will be obese as an adult if one parent is obese? If both parents are obese?
No obese parents: 10%
1 obese parent: 40%
2 obese parents: 80%
What are the three components of a good weight loss program?
an eating plan that is nutritionally sound and a good fit, regular exercise, and behavior component
What are the characteristics of a sound weight loss/weight maintenance diet?
must be low in calories, but not too low, contains common foods for long term success, adapted to individual's genetics, habits and tastes, permanent change with eating problems/habits, and slow and steady weight loss and improves overall health
Why don't extreme diets generally work? What are the physiologic reasons?
generally they are very low in calories or eliminate food groups and don't work in long term
body defends itself against weight loss and if calories are too low eventually metabolism is lowered
What is the recommendation for amount of regular physical activity for weight loss and why is it important for weight loss?
1 hour most days of the week
This is important because it not only increases calories burned, especially fat, but it preserves muscles
Give an example of CHAIN BREAKING
Snacking while watching T.V.
(breaking the link between two behaviors)
Give an example of COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING
Replace eating due to stress with walking.
(changing your frame of mind regarding eating/physical activity)
Give an example of CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT
Rehearse in advance appropriate responses to pressure of eating at parties
(forming a plan of action in response to a situation)
Give an example of SELF-MONITORING
What am I eating? Am I looking at portion sizes? Have I increased my physical activity?
What is the purpose of bariatric surgery?
losing weight by reducing the size of the stomach and/or causing malabsorption