Flashcards in Food Safety Deck (30)
Who is at risk for more serious symptoms from food borne illness?
very young, very old, people with long term illness, pregnant, malnourished
Direct mechanism of bacterial food poisoning
bacteria already present in food, then invade intestinal wall and produce infection
Indirect mechanism of bacterial food poisoning
toxin produced by bacteria after food eaten
What can be done to prevent mushroom poisoning?
mushroom hunters need to be familiar with the mushrooms they collect
How do you prevent getting sick from moldy foods?
discard any food with mold, not just the part with visible mold
What industry and consumer trends explain explain food borne illness outbreaks being so common?
Industry trends: centralized food production creates multiple contamination opportunities, increased shelf life, and insufficient regulation by FDA
Consumer trends: popularity of fast-food, increased consumption of imported ready-to-eat foods, preference for "rare red meats, and immunosuppressive medications
What type of food environment do bacteria thrive in?
water, neutral PH, oxygen, protein rich environment
Which preservation methods work to decrease available water in the food?
add salt or sugar, drying, and fermentation
What is fermentation?
creates acidic environment
What is pasteurization?
heating process that kills most microorganisms
What is food irradiation?
low does of radiation that destroys pathogens, however does not make food radioactive
What preventative methods can you take when purchasing food?
buy frozen foods, meats and dairy last, place meats in separate plastic bags, don't buy dented cans, buy only pasteurized milk/cheese, buy only what you need, and check the precut produce for brownish, slimy color and texture
What are three type of expiration dates on food packages?
"best used by (or before)"
What preventative measures can you take when preparing food?
wash hands for 20 seconds, keep counters and all utensils clean, replace sponges and towels frequently, prepare raw meat separately, avoid coughing or sneezing, and wash all fruits and veggies thoroughly
What is cross contamination?
from one contaminated source to clean source
What preventative measures can you take when cooking food?
thoroughly cook meat and eggs, use food thermometer, cook stuffing separately, eat food right away, serve cooked meat on clean plates, and avoid partial cooking food for picnics
What is the temperature "danger zone?"
40 degrees to 140 degrees for more than 2 hours
What preventative measures can you take when storing/reheating food?
store left-over within 1-2 hours, keep cold foods cold and hot foods hot, reheat leftovers to 165 degrees, store peeled, cut up produce in the refrigerator, keep fridge under forty degrees
What is the two hour rule?
discard any perishables left out at room temperature for longer than two hours
How long should you keep ground up meat in the refrigerator? Raw steaks? Roasts? Chops? Poultry? Lunchmeat? Mayo based salads?
Ground meat: 1-2 days
Raw steaks, roasts, chops, poultry and mayo salads: 3-5 days
Lunchmeat: 2-4 weeks
Why are food additives used?
added to limit spoilage and increase safety of foods or added for coloring or flavoring
What are the two food additives categories?
1. Intentional food additives: added directly to food
2. Incidental food additives: residues from pesticides, hormones, and antibiotics
What populations need to be most concerned with mercury poisoning?
pregnant or nursing women, women of childbearing years and young children
What containers/coverings are recommended for microwaving foods?
labeled "microwave safe," if "microwave safe" container is damaged: discard, do not cook or reheat in ld margin or yogurt containers, plastic wrap shouldn't touch foods while cooking
What are BPA's?
chemical used for more than 40 years in the manufacture of many hard plastic food containers such as baby bottles and reusable cups/bottles and the lining of metal food and beverage cans, including canned liquid infant formula; could be dangerous
Why are hormones and antibiotics given to animals?
increase milk production and to increase size in cattle which results in more meat
What are pesticides and which population groups are at most risk for pesticide poisoning?
they are chemicals used to control insects, weeds, fungi and other pests on plants.
children, elderly, and people w weak immune system should be most concerned
What measures can be taken to minimize exposure to pesticides?
trim fat from meat, wash fresh produce in warm running water, discard outer leaves or leafy vegetables, eat a variety of foods, buy organic
Name and define the 3 categories set by USDA for labeling of organic foods.
1. 100% Organic
2. Organic: made with at least 95% organic ingredients
3. Made With Organic Ingredients: made with a minimum of 70% organic ingredients with strict restrictions on the remaining 30% including no GMOs