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Flashcards in Sports Nutrition Deck (42)
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What are the health benefits of regular physical activity?

maintains lean muscle tissue, aids in weight control, improves cardiovascular health, enhances insulin action, strengthens bones, improves sleep, fewer injuries, improves psychological health


What are the four sources of ATP during physical activity and what are the time frames each source provides ATP?

1. ATP (2-4 seconds)
2. Pcr (5-30 seconds)
3. Anaerobic pathways (30 seconds to two minutes)
4. Aerobic pathways (2 minutes- 3 hours)


Name the two areas of glycogen (aka carbohydrate) storage and what is the function of glycogen in each area?

Muscle: provides energy directly to the muscle where its stored

Liver: functions to replenish blood glucose levels


Depending on the exercise intensity and duration, explain which macronutrients are used as the main fuel source.

The longer the duration, the more fat used.
The higher the intensity, the more carbs used.


Where is the majority of stored energy in the body located?

fat cells and muscle


How much energy is supplied by protein during exercise?

2-5% of energy needs during rest and low to moderate exercise

10-15% of energy needs during endurance exercise


What are the physiologic effects of aerobic exercise?

the more fit you are, the more oxygen can get to the working muscle

can store more glycogen in the muscle than untrained individual

the more trained muscle, the greater its ability to use fat as fuel


What is hypertrophy?

increase in cell size, muscles enlarge as a result of repeated work


What is atrophy?

wasting away of tissues, result of non-movement


What are the 3 components of the athletes/exercisers diet?

1. Quantity
2. Quality
3. Timing


What are the 3 consequences of long term calorie deficient diet?

1. loss of muscle mass and decreased strength
2. increased susceptibility to illness and injury
3. increased prevalence of overtraining


For competitive athletes, what are the barriers to adequate calorie intake?

sports that involve weight classes, sports where extra body weight can possibly impact performance negatively, intense training suppressing appetite, food intake before training causing GI upset, travel schedules, busy daily schedules, and sports that result in high calorie need


List the high risk sports for inadequate calorie intake.

gymnast, cross country, ballet, figure skaters, weight class athletes, and cyclist


How does an athlete/exerciser know if they’re at their optimal body weight?

Know their body fat percentage, the last weight maintained without constantly dieting, performance improvement


What is the best advice for an athlete/exerciser trying to lose weight? Gain weight?

best if done over offseason, reduce calories roughly 500/day, another option is to implement a periodization eating schedule, and use performance and general energy levels as a barometer


What is the best advice for an athlete/exerciser trying to gain weight?

add 500-1000 calories per day with increased resistance training, don't skip meals (esp. breakfast), add snack before bed


For an athletes/exercisers diet, what percentage (in a range) of overall calories (aka macronutrient needs) should come from carbohydrate, fat and protein?

Carbohydrate: 50-70%
Protein: 10-25%
Fat: 20-40%


What is the main goal for carbohydrate intake in general?

maximize glycogen stores (more glycogen=higher intensity for longer)


What is carbo loading?

consuming extra carbohydrate leading up to an event


For a competitive athlete fat consumption should never drop below what % of overall cals?



What are protein recommendations on a g/kg basis?

1.2-2.0 grams/kg of body weight


What is/are the goals of pre-activity eating?

help avoid hunger during the event, optimize glycogen stores, keep blood sugars stable, provide fuel during the event, not be too full or have GI issues, and provide some extra fluid


What events are appropriate/inappropriate (based on duration) for carbohydrate loading?

for events lasting longer than 70-90 minutes, more appropriate for highly competitive situations


What are some characteristics of the pre-activity meal?

consumed 2-4 hours prior to event, consist primarily of carbohydrates, low fat, little fiber, moderate protein, avoid fatty, friend foods, sweets


Name some good choices for pre-activity snacking (1-2 hours before).

sports drinks, bars, fruit, crackers, dry cereal, began, gels, honey


What is the goal of consuming carbohydrate during exercise?

help avoid low blood sugars and preserves muscle glycogen as long as possible


What are the goals of post competition/training eating?

replenish glycogen and minimize protein breakdown that naturally occurs after exercise


How would you optimize replenishment of muscle glycogen?

ingestion of carbohydrates asap, adding at least 4-9 grams of protein helps increase refueling rates


Generally speaking what are the vitamin and mineral needs of athletes/exercisers compared to sedentary adults?

extra vitamin and minerals needs may be met by diet


What are the two most common nutrient deficiencies?

iron and calcium