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Flashcards in Protein Synthesis Deck (29):
1

Transcription

process of making mRNA from a gene

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What do we need for transcription?

1. Template
2. Initiation
3. Separation of strands
4. Polymerase activity
5. Termination

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Sense

non-template (coding) strand

reads 5' to 3'

the same as mRNA strand except for T instead of U

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Anti-sense

template strand

reads 3' to 5'

complimentary to mRNA and sense strand

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Which direction is RNA built in?

5' to 3' direction

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Sigma factor

part of protein complex that initiates the process by binding directly to DNA

recognizes and binds to the promoter

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Do promoters vary?

Yes, but they all are similar so that sigma factor can recognize

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Does the promoter get copied?

No

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Location where transcription begins?

+1

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RNA polymerase

elongates

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Termination phase

termination sequence codes RNA which will create a hairpin in the mRNA

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Is the terminator sequence transcribed?

It has to be because it codes for the hairpin

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Transcription in eukaryotes

diverse promoters

TATA box

basal transcription factors

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TATA box

found in eukaryotes

30 boxes upstream

promoter sequence

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Basal transcription factors

found in eukaryotes

bind to DNA promoter and initiate transcription

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Transcription in prokaryotes

can have simultaneous transcription and translation since no nucleus

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What is an evolutionary advantage that prokaryotes have?

They are able to metabollically adapt very quickly to new conditions and produce new proteins

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Post transcriptional controls

splicing

add non-coding regions to protect

help interact with ribosome

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Translation

mRNA is converted to an amino acid sequence in a protein

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3 phases of translation

1. initiation
2. elongation
3. termination

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Ribosomes

catalyze translation of the mRNA sequence into protein

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A site

the acceptor site for an aminoacyl tRNA

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P site

where a peptide bond forms that adds an amino acid to the growing polypeptide chain

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E site

where tRNAs no longer bond to an amino acid exit the ribosome

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Order of the sites

EPA

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tRNA

CCA sequence at 3' end binds to amino acid

anticodon base pairs with the mRNA codon

shaped like upside down L

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redundancy in protein synthesis

multiple codons code for the same amino acid

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redundancy in protein synthesis

multiple codons code for the same amino acid

29

Where do tRNAs vary?

Different anticodons and amino acids