Respiration and Fermentation Flashcards Preview

BIOL 141 > Respiration and Fermentation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiration and Fermentation Deck (47):
1

4 stages of cellular respiration

1. glycolysis
2. pyruvate processing
3. krebs cycle
4. ETC

2

Is the process linear?

no

do not always have to start with glucose

made up of anabolic and pathways

3

Where are catabolic intermediates used?

in anabolic pathways

4

anabolic

synthesize new molecules

5

catabolic

break down molecules

6

Example of a catabolic intermediate

Acetyl-CoA

7

Oxidation/reduction reactions

make up cellular respiration

8

Where does glycolysis take place?

outside the mitochondria, in the cytoplasm

9

Main goal of glycolysis

to break down glucose to make pyruvate

10

What does glycolysis produce?

2 molecules pyruvate, 2 net ATP, 2 NADHS

11

Is glycolysis anaerobic or aerobic?

Anaerobic (no O2)

12

What are the two phases glycolysis?

1. energy investment (input 2 ATP)

2. energy payoff

13

What happens during energy investment in glycolysis?

Free energy increases

14

Substrate-level phosphorylation

direct process where ATP is bounded directly to an enzyme

occurs in glycolysis

15

In overall equation, what is being oxidized and what is being reduced?

glucose is being oxidized

O2 is being reduced

16

What does NAD+ get reduced to?

NADH

this is the form that it is carrying more electrons in

17

What type of molecules serve as electron acceptors?

Molecules with low potential energy

18

Where do all the carbons of glucose end up when glucose is completely oxidized?

CO2

*think about net equation

19

If glucose was labeled with radioactive carbons, where would you expect the carbons to end up?

all biological molecules

intermediates in cellular respiration can go on to form other things besides going to the ETC

Ex: Acetyl-CoA is used in synthesis of fatty acids

20

Reducing agent

The molecule that is doing the reducing, therefore it is giving up electrons and being OXIDIZED

it will have less electrons and lower potential energy

21

What process will proceed whether oxygen is present or not?

glycolysis

22

metabolism

the sum of chemical reaction that take place within each cell of a living organism and provide energy for the entire organism

23

Phosphofructokinase

an allosteric enzyme that catalyzes an early stage of glucose (breaks down fructose)

negative feedback of ATP regulates

24

Where does pyruvate processing take place?

In the mitochondrial matrix

25

What is pyruvate processing catalyzed by?

Pyruvate dehydrogenase

Negative feedback by ATP

26

Net products of pyruvate processing

2 Acetyl-CoA
2 NADH
2 CO2

27

What happens in pyruvate processing?

two carbons from pyruvate combine with co-A

28

Which energy storing molecule carries the highest amount of chemical energy?

NADH

Since it releases the most free energy when formed

29

Where does the citric acid cycle take place?

mitochondrial matrix

30

What happens to each Acetyl-CoA?

oxidized to two molecules of CO2

31

What is produced from the citric acid (krebs) cycle?

3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 GTP or 1 ATP

32

Where does substrate level phosphorylyzation occur in the citric acid cycle?

When GDP is transformed into GTp

33

Where is CO2 produced?

pyruvate processing

the citric acid cycle

34

Why is the overall production of ATP in cellular respiration considered indirect?

Because it is pumped by the ETC and not directly synthesized by substrate-level phosphorylation

35

What is the O2 consumed during respiration directly used for?

accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain

36

Where is most water produced during cellular respiration?

the ETC

37

What is different about Q?

it is not a protein. it is lipid soluble and can move through the membrane

38

What is the synthesis of ATP an example of?

endergonic reaction coupled with an exergonic reaction

39

What goes into the ETC?

10 NADH
2 FADH2
O2

40

What is produced by the ETC?

Roughly 29-34 ATPs
H2O

41

Where does chemosynthesis take place in prokaryotes?

on the outer cell membrane rather than in the mitochondrial membrane

42

Oxidative phosphorylation?

proton gradient formed by pumped hydrogens

43

ATP synthase

hydrogen ions spin a rotor as they are moved back into mitochrondrial matrix

44

What is the most effective electron acceptor?

oxygen because it is the most electronegative

it will pull the electrons

45

Alcohol fermentation

characteristic of yeasts and bacteria

pyruvate gets reduced to an intermediate

results in toxic carbon 2 ethanol

46

Why is alcohol fermentation selected for in evolution?

produces a toxin that could kill potential predators

47

Lactic acid fermentation

characteristic of animals and bacteria

pyruvate is directly reduced to lactic acid, no intermediate