Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

BIOL 141 > Carbohydrates > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (19):
1

What are carbohydrates used for?

1. cell identity
2. store energy
3. structural molecules
4. building blocks for other biomolecules

2

Why do lipids store energy better than carbs bonds?

Lipids contain long chains of C-H bonds that store a lot of potential energy

3

Relationship between glucose and galactose

they are both hexoses (6 carbons)

they are conformational isomers of each other on the 4'

4

What types of structures are sugars found in?

linear and ring structure

5

What is the importance of the 1' carbon

the position of the -OH group determines if it is alpha or beta and controls the dissacharides bond properties

6

Alpha

1' hydroxl group is facing downwards

results in a kinked polymer

this is good to store energy since they are easy to break

7

Beta

1' hydroxl group is facing upwards

results in a straight polymer

this is hard to break and therefore is used for cell walls and shells

8

Starch vs. glycogen

Starch is less branched and found in plants

Glycogen is more branched and found in animals

9

Why do animals select for glycogen over starch?

since animals do not have photosynthesis, they need more surface area to store more energy

10

Glycosidic linkage

analogous to the peptide bond in amino acids

and the phosphodiester bond in nucleic acids

formed due to a condensation reaction

11

Examples of polysaccrarides?

starch and glycogen

12

Starch and glycogen similarities

both are polysaccarides that store energy due to their alpha conformation

13

Chitin, cellulose, and petidoglycan

all made of beta conformations that make them good for cell walls and exoskeletons

14

Chitin

used for structural support in the cell walls of fungi

used for external skeletons of insects and crusteaceans

15

Petidoglycan

used for structural support in bacteria cell walls

16

Cellulose

used for structural support in plant cell walls

17

glycoprotein

used to indetify the cell

sugar tag embedded in the cell membrane

18

Does NADH or ATP have more potential energy?

NADH

19

Does glucose or glycogen have more potential energy?

Glycogen