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Flashcards in Exam 1 (Key Notes) Deck (42):
1

What came first life or O2?

life

2

What came first land plants or land animals?

Plants

3

What led to the Perminan mass extinction at the end of the Cenozoic period/Cambrian explosion?

Formation of Pangea

4

What came first dinosaur extinction or first mammals?

First mammals

5

What came first Atlantic ocean opens or dinosaurs extinction?

Atlantic ocean

6

What came first humans or wooley mammoth extinction?

Humans

7

What is different about uracil compared to thymine?

Thymine has an extra H3C attatched which makes it more stable and found in DNA

8

What is different about cytosine compared to uracil and thymine?

Cytosine has NH2 on top whereas uracil and thymine have oxygen on top

9

Difference between guanine and adenine?

Guanine has O attached and adenine has NH2 attatched

10

What is on 3' carbon of sugar in nucleotide?

OH

11

Where is double bonded O from phosphorous in nucleic acid polymerization?

On the right. Facing "inwards"

12

Where is hydrogen attached to the carboxyl group of the non-ionized amino acid?

To the single bonded oxygen

13

Non-polar amino acids (R)

look for hydrocarbon groups and sulfur
no oxygen

uncharged, hydrophobic

14

Polar amino acids

look for partial charges and oxygen

hydrophilic, will form hydrogen bonds

15

Electrically charged acidic amino acids

look for negative charge

look for carboxyl groups

hydrophilic, will give up protons

16

Which amino acids are acidic?

Aspartic acid and glutamic acid

17

Which amino acids are basic?

arginine, histidine, lystine

18

Electrically charged basic amino acids

look for positive charge

look for NH

hydrophilic, will attract protons

19

Intermediate forms

gradual stages between simple and complex structures

ex: development of the human eye

20

Transitional fossils

Intermediate forms in the fossil record

cannot assume a direct think between derived and ancestral species

21

Sister taxa

tips that are directly related by a single common ancestor at a node

22

Cladogram

only info is branching pattern and order, branch length provides no information

time is indicated by ancestors and descendants

23

Phylogram

branch length indicates level of divergence

there is time associated with it

24

Synapomorphy

shared derived homologous traits

a shared trait that sets a clade away from other clades

25

Precambrian era

life was unicellular and not diverse

oxygen was virtually absent until photosynthetic bacteria

early animals form later

26

Importance of the development of predators

sparked the Cambrian explosion

it is now an arms race to develop to survive

leds to shells, teeth, and claws

27

Adaptation

a heritable trait that increases the fitness of a particular individual relative to those lacking the trait

28

Fitness

the ability of an individual to produce surviving fertile offspring relative to other individuals in the population

29

Monohybrid cross

crossing plants that differ in only one trait

30

Particulate inheritance

suggests that hereditary determinants maintain their integrity from generation to generation

31

Principle of segregation

the two alleles of each gene pair must segregate into different gamete cells

32

Hardest bonds to break

non-polar covalent

33

More hydrogen ions in a solution indicates

lower pH (more acidic)

34

The particle theory of inheritance

hereditary traits act like particles (units) as they are passed from generation to generation

chromosomes are these particles

35

Law of independent assortment

character traits are not connected but are inherited independently

36

What are chromosomes composed of?

DNA and proteins

37

Bacteriophage

Hershey and Chase experiment

Bacteriophage only inject hereditary material into the cell

this will tell us whether DNA or proteins are the genetic material (cannot just study chromosome replication, since DNA and proteins are both in chromosomes)

38

How is DNA stabilized?

By hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions in the interior

39

When is amino group most likely to be ionized?

In low pH

When it is more acidic, NH2 is more likely to act as a base and pick up one of the many hydrogen ions floating around

40

Disulfide bond

stabilize secondary and tertiary proteins

they are very strong

41

Codominance

simultaneous expression of the phenotype associated with both alleles in a heterozygote

42

Incomplete dominance

heterozygotes display a phenotype that is intermediate between the 2 homozygous parents