Flashcards in Psychobiology of Disease Deck (11)
What is the fight or flight response?
This is the physiological response to stress
What are the three stages of Selye’s general adaptation syndrome?
Stage 1: Alarm Reaction– shift to sympathetic dominance –increased arousal
Stage 2: Resistance – endocrine system produces ACTH to maintain the increased arousal
Stage 3: Exhaustion– adrenals lose their ability to function normally
Describe the psycho-psychological and behavioural pathways linking stress and disease.
Events cause stress
Stress leads to physiological changes and behavioural changes
These lead to disease
Describe the findings of the Steptoe experiment on health behaviour and stress.
This observed the interaction between health behaviour and social support
Smoking: at baseline both groups were the same. During exam time: high social support smoked less, low social support smoked more
Drinking: at baseline high social support smoked more than low. During exam time: low social support drank more, high social support drank less
What effect does stress have on the immune system?
Describe Cohen’s experiment on stress and colds.
Exposed volunteers to a nasal wash containing cold virus and asked the volunteers to rate their level of stress The more stressed people were, the more they became ill with the cold
What is Type A behaviour?
Focus on accomplishment
Competitive and goal-driven
What is the link between Type A behaviour and cardiovascular disease?
Increased risk of coronary heart disease
NOTE: the Western Collaborative Group Study confirmed this
What is the placebo effect?
An inactive substance can sometimes improve a patient’s condition simply because the patient has the expectation that it will be helpful
Describe the relationship between social support/relationships and health.
Individuals with adequate social relationships have a 50% greater likelihood of survival compared to those with poor or insufficient social relationships
Social support exerts effects beyond the protective psychological role
High social support is associated with decreased mortality