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Y2 LCRS 2 - Psychology - Laz > Individual Differences > Flashcards

Flashcards in Individual Differences Deck (14)
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What are the three main personality theories?

Big Five (OCEAN)


Describe Freud’s model of personality.

There are three components of personality:
Id – instinctual drive – this is the drive for pleasure
Ego – reality
Superego – morality
NOTE: the ego is kept in check by the Id and Superego


Describe Eysenck’s model of personality.

Eysenck hypothesised that personality consists of two independent traits:
 NEUROTICISM – the tendency to experience negative emotions
 EXTRAVERSION – degree to which a person is outgoing and seeks stimulation


Describe the Big Five model of personality.

Openness– appreciation for art, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination
Conscientiousness– tendency to show self-discipline, planned rather than spontaneous
Extraversion– energy, positive emotions, and tendency to seek stimulation and company of others
Agreeableness– tendency to be compassionate and cooperate
Neuroticism– tendency to experience negative emotions


Define locus of control.

An expectancy concerning the degree of personal control we have in our life (this can be internal or external)


Define IQ – how is it calculated?

ntelligence quotient
IQ = (mental age/chronological age) x 100 An IQ of 100 is average


What are the limitations of IQ?

It averages all the domains of intelligence and doesn’t consider them individually


What are the two different types of intelligence?

Crystallised Intelligence – the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems
Fluid Intelligence – the ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for which personal experience doesn’t provide a solution


How do these types of intelligence change with age?

Crystallised – increases with age
Fluid – shows a pattern of decline


Describe the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to IQ.

Genetic factors – ½ to 2/3 of variation in IQ
Environmental factors – 1/3 to ½ of variation in IQ


Describe the correlation in the IQ of different pairs of individuals living together and apart that shows that genetics has a relatively larger contribution to IQ.

Unrelated individuals living apart --> unrelated individual living together --> siblings living together --> fraternal twins living together --> identical twins living apart --> identical twins living together


Describe Baron Cohen’s empathising/systematising model.

Empathising – ability to infer the thoughts and feelings of others and have an appropriate reaction
Systematising – the drive to analyse and construct any kind of system
i.e. identifying the rules that govern the system in order to predict howthe system will behave


What are the differences between males and females with regards to this model?

Females – more empathising, less systematising
Males – more systematising, less empathising


What type of brain are people with Autism/Aspergus thought tohave?

They are thought to have an extreme male brain
Lots of systematising