Flashcards in Coping with Treatment Deck (16)
A condition that results when the patient/environment transactions lead the individual to perceive a discrepancy between the demands of the situation and the coping resources available
Describe the application of stress to hospitalisation for medical/surgical procedures.
For patients, there are mental demands of the threat of wellbeing from hospitalisation (pain, severity etc.) and there may be limited copingresources as there is little they can do
What are the two types of information that can be provided to patients before a medical intervention?
Procedural Information – information about the procedures to be undertaken
Sensory Information – information about the sensations that may be experienced
What is the term given to the provision of both types of information before a procedure?
Dual process hypothesis
What is the reasoning behind this hypothesis?
Procedural information allows patients to match on-going events with expectations in a non-emotional manner
Sensory information works by mapping a non-threatening interpretationonto these expectations
What are the two types of coping with stress?
Problem focussed coping
Emotion focuses coping
Define and give examples of problem-focussed coping.
Efforts directed at changing the environment in some way or changingone’s own actions or attitudes
Examples: seeking health information, finding out more about the procedures, pacing activity, changing behaviour
Define and give examples of emotion-focussed coping.
Efforts designed to manage the stress-related emotional responses in order to maintain one’s own morale and allow one to function
Examples: meditation, relaxation techniques, deep breathing, distraction, praying
What experiment compared problem-focussed and emotion-focussed coping and what did the results show?
Martelli et al
This was a study on the type of information given (problem focussed or emotion focussed) vs the individual’s desire for information
HIGH desire for information – problem-focussed prep DECREASED anxiety and emotion-focussed prep increased anxiety
LOW desire for information – problem-focussed prep INCREASED anxiety and emotion-focussed prep had little effect
What study looked at the effect of information given vs the individual desire for information and what did the results show?
Auerbach – looked at the relationship between the amount of information and distress
Patients undergoing a dental extraction were given either specific or general information about the procedure
HIGH desire for information – less distress with specific information
LOW desire for information – less distress with general information
Describe the effect of perceived control on distress.
An increase in perceived control decreases distress
Describe the traffic light study.
The patients were given a device for expressing discomfort on a traffic light scale
The patients either did or did not know that the dentist could see the lights
The dentist either did or did not respond to the lights
For AVERSIVE treatments: discomfort decreased only if the patients signalled AND the dentist responded
For NON-AVERSIVE treatments: NO difference – if anxiety producing, information giving alone reduces discomfort
Describe the results of the nursing home study.
Nursing home had 2 floors and one of the floors was given MORE CHOICE than the other
This floor had greater engagement in activity, had a generally better wellbeing and lower 18 month mortality rate
What is the effect of social support on wellbeing?
Increased emotional support was a significant, independent predictor of better emotional status, quality of life and compliance with recommended behaviours
What are the strategies for helping children cope with treatment?
Tell, Show, Do
Tell – using simple language and a matter-of-fact style, the child is told what is going to happen before the procedure
Show – the procedure is demonstrated on an inanimate object, a member of staff or the dentist himself
Do – procedure does not begin until the child understand what will be done – prompt distraction strategies