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Mental image

A mental representation of objects or events that are not physically present



A mental category of objects or ideas based on property they share


Formal concept

A mental category and that is formed by learning the rules or features that define it


Natural concept

A mental category that is formed as a result of every day experiences



The most typical instances of a particular concept



The sudden realization of how a problem can be solved



Coming to a conclusion or making a judgment without conscious awareness of the thought process involved


Functional fixedness

The tendency to view objects of function only in their usual or custom ways


Mental set

The tendency to persist in solving problems with the solution that have worked in the past


Availability heuristic

If strategy in which the likelihood of event if estimated on the biases of how readily available other instances of the event are in memory r

For example we are afraid of flying or getting bitten by a shark rather than dying of a car accident or heart attack


Representativeness heuristics

It strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated by the comparing how similar it is to the Proto type of the event


The single feature model

In order to simplify the choice among many alternative you beef your decision on the single feature

For example when buying laundry detergent you please your decision one feature such a price and buy the cheapest one


The additive model

And this model you first generate a list the factors that are most important to you then you rate each alternative for each factor using an arbitrary scale


The elimination by aspects model

Using this model you evaluate all the alternative one characteristic at a time typically starting with the feature you consider most important if a particular alternator failed to meet that criteria and you scratch it off your list of possible choices

For example when you buy a new computer you might initially eliminate all models that are powerful enough to run the software you need to use