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Flashcards in Psychopathology Key Terms Deck (24)
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1

Cultural Relativism

The view that behaviour can't be judged properly unless it's viewed in the context of the culture in which it originates.

2

Deviation from social norms

Abnormal behaviour is seen as a deviation from unstated rules about how one 'ought' to behave. Anything that violates these rules is considered abnormal.

3

DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)

A list of mental disorders that is used to diagnose mental disorders. For each disorder a list of clinical characteristics is given, i.e. symptoms to look for.

4

Statistical Infrequency

Abnormality is defined as those behaviours that are extremely rare.

5

Deviation from ideal mental health

Abnormality is defined in terms of mental health, behaviours that are associated with competence and happiness. Ideal mental health would include a positive attitude towards the self, resistance to stress and an accurate perception of reality.

6

Failure to function adequately

People are judged on their ability to go about daily life. If they can't do this and are also experiencing distress (or others are distressed by their behaviour) then it is considered a sign of abnormality. E.g. eating regularly.

7

Phobias

A group of mental disorders characterised by high levels of anxiety in response to a particular stimulus or group of stimuli. The anxiety interferes with normal living.

8

Classical conditioning

Learning through association. A neutral stimulus is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that it eventually takes place on the properties of this stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response.

9

Operant conditioning

Learning through reinforcement or punishment. If a behaviour is followed by a desirable consequence then that behaviour is more likely to occur again in the future.

10

Two-process model

A theory that explains the two processes that lead to the development of phobias - they begin through classical conditioning and are maintained through operant conditioning.

11

Flooding

A form of behavioural therapy used to treat phobias and other anxiety disorders. A client is exposed to (or imagines) an extreme form of the threatening situation under relaxed conditions until the anxiety reaction is extinguished.

12

Systematic desensitisation

A form of behavioural therapy used to treat phobias and other anxiety disorders. A client is gradually exposed to (or imagines) the threatening situation under relaxed conditions until the anxiety reaction is distinguished.

13

ABC Model

A cognitive approach to understanding mental disorder, focusing on the effect of irrational beliefs on emotions.

14

Negative Triad

A cognitive approach to understanding depression, focusing on how negative expectations (schema) about the self, world and future lead to depression.

15

Schema

A cognitive framework that helps organise and interpret information in the brain. A schema helps an individual to make sense of new information.

16

Cognitive-behavioural Therapy (CBT)

Challenging irrational thoughts
Homework
Behavioural activation
Unconditional positive regard

17

Irrational Thoughts

Rational thinking is flexible and realistic, where beliefs are based on fact and logic. Irrational thinking is rigid and unrealistic and lacks internal consistency.

18

Concordance Rate

A measure of genetic similarity. In a sample of, for example, 100 twin pairs, one twin of each pair has a phobic disorder. The number of times their other twin also shows the illness determines the concordance rate, so if 40 have a phobic disorder, then the concordance rate is 40%.

19

Dopamine

One of the key neurotransmitters in the brain, with effects on motivation and 'drive'.

20

Gene

A part of the chromosome of an organism that carries information in the form of DNA.

21

Neurotransmitter

Chemical substances that plan an important part in the workings of the nervous system by transmitting nerve impulses across a synapse.

22

GABA

A neurotransmitter that regulates excitement in the nervous system, thus acting as a natural form of anxiety reducer.

23

Noradrenaline

A neurotransmitter found mainly in areas of the brain that are involved in governing autonomic nervous system activity.

24

Serotonin

A neurotransmitter implicated in many different behaviours and physiological processes, including aggression, eating behaviour, sleep and depression.