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Flashcards in Memory Key Terms Deck (24)
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The way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory.
Information enters the brain via the senses and is then stored in various forms, such as visual, acoustic or semantic codes.


Long-term Memory (LTM)

Duration: Unlimited
Capacity: Unlimited
Coding: Semantic


Short-term Memory (STM)

Duration: 18-30 seconds
Capacity: 7+/- 2 chunks
Coding: Acoustic



Accessing information from the LTM.


Multi-store Model of Memory (MSM)

Created by Atkinson (1968)
Environmental stimuli enter the sensory register.
The sensory register holds information at the senses.
Attention is paid onto these sensory stores and the data enters the STM.
The STM stores information for immediate tasks.
Maintenance rehearsal keeps information in the STM but eventually repetition creates a LTM.
LTM stores information.
Retrieval involves taking information from the LTM through the the STM so it's available for use.


Central Executive

Monitors and coordinates all other mental functions in working memory.


Episodic Buffer

Receives input from many sources, temporarily stores this information, and then integrates it in order to construct a mental episode of what is being experienced.


Phonological Loop

Codes speech sounds in working memory, typically involving maintenance rehearsal. This is why this component of working memory is referred to as a 'loop'.


Visuo-spatial Sketchpad

Codes visual information in terms of separate objects as well as the arrangement of these objects in one's visual field.


Working Memory Model

An explanation of the memory used when working on a task.
Phonological loop - Central executive - visuo-spatial sketchpad
Episodic buffer
Long-term memory


Episodic Memory

Personal memories of events, such as what you did yesterday or a teacher you liked. This kind of memory includes contextual details plus emotional tone.


Procedural Memory

Memory for how to do things, for example riding a bike or learning how to read. Such memories are automatic as the result of repeated practice.


Semantic Memory

Shared memories for facts and knowledge. These memories may be concrete, such as knowing that ice is made of water, or abstract, such as mathematical knowledge.



An explanation for forgetting in terms of one memory disrupting the ability to recall another. This is most likely to occur when the two memories have some similarity.


Proactive Interference

Past learning interferes with current attempts to learn something.


Retroactive Interference

Current attempts to learn something interfere with past learning.



Things that serve as a reminder. They may meaningfully link to the material to be remembered or not, such as environmental cues or cues related to your mental state.


Retrieval Failure

Occurs due to the absence of cues. An explanation for forgetting based on the idea that the issue relates to being able to retrieve a memory that is there but not accessible. Retrieval depends on using cues.


Eyewitness Testimony

The evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime, with a view to identifying the perpetrator of the crime.


Leading Question

A question that, either by its form or content, suggests to the witness what answer is desired or leads them to the desired answer.


Misleading Information

Supplying information that may lead a witness' memory of a crime to be altered.


Post-event Discussion

A conversation between co-witnesses or an interviewer and an eyewitness after a crime has taken place which may contaminate a witness' memory for the event.



An unpleasant emotional state that is often accompanied by increased heart rate and rapid breathing.


Cognitive Interview

A police technique for interviewing witnesses to a crime, which encourages them to recreate the original context of the crime in order to increase the accessibility of stored information. Because our memory is made up of a network of associations rather than of discrete events, memories are accessed using multiple retrieval strategies.