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Flashcards in Memory Exam Questions Deck (9)
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Information stored with reference to time and place refers to: [1 mark]

Episodic Memory


Information not available for conscious inspection refers to: [1 mark]

Procedural Memory


What features does the working memory model include? [2 marks]

Central Executive
Episodic Buffer
Phonological Loop
Visuospatial Sketch Pad


What is Episodic Memory? [2 marks]

Personal memories of events, such as what you did yesterday or a teacher you liked. This kind of memory includes contextual details plus emotional tone.


What is Procedural Memory? [2 marks]

Memory for how to do things, for example riding a bicycle or learning how to read. Such memories are automatic as the result of repeated practice.


What is Semantic Memory? [2 marks]

Shared memories for facts and knowledge. These memories may be concrete, such as knowing that ice is made of water, or abstract, such as mathematical knowledge.


Outline how one research study investigated the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (EWT) [4 marks]

Loftus - role of leading questions
Yuille & Cutshall (1986) - evidence from an actual crime
Anxiety (weapon focus) or age of witness
Flin et al (1992) - staged event & compared deterioration of children's and adult's memories over time
Karpel et al (2001) - showed a video of a robbery & compared information given by young adults with that given by older adults.


Describe Interference as an explanation for forgetting. [6 marks]

- Interference where two lots of information become confused in memory
- Proactive interference is where old learning affects recall of new information
- Retroactive interference is where new learning affects recall of old information
- Newer information may overwrite earlier information
- Interference occurs more when the two lots of information are similar
- Interference is less likely to occur when there is a gap between the instances of learning


Describe the Cognitive Interview. [6 marks]

- Reinstating the context - interviewee mentally reinstates the environmental and personal context of the incident
- Report everything - interviewer encourages the reporting of every single detail of the event, even though it may seem irrelevant
- Changing order - interviewer tries alternative ways through the timeline of the incident; (reduces possibility that recall may be influenced by schema/expectations)
- Changing perspective - interviewee recalls from different perspectives, e.g. how it would have appeared to other witnesses; (reduces influence of scheme)
Features of enhanced cognitive interview to facilitate recall - Focus on social interaction, reducing anxiety/distractions, slow speech, use of open-ended questions.