Memory Exam Questions Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Memory Exam Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Exam Questions Deck (9)
Loading flashcards...
1

Information stored with reference to time and place refers to: [1 mark]

Episodic Memory

2

Information not available for conscious inspection refers to: [1 mark]

Procedural Memory

3

What features does the working memory model include? [2 marks]

Central Executive
Episodic Buffer
Phonological Loop
Visuospatial Sketch Pad

4

What is Episodic Memory? [2 marks]

Personal memories of events, such as what you did yesterday or a teacher you liked. This kind of memory includes contextual details plus emotional tone.

5

What is Procedural Memory? [2 marks]

Memory for how to do things, for example riding a bicycle or learning how to read. Such memories are automatic as the result of repeated practice.

6

What is Semantic Memory? [2 marks]

Shared memories for facts and knowledge. These memories may be concrete, such as knowing that ice is made of water, or abstract, such as mathematical knowledge.

7

Outline how one research study investigated the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (EWT) [4 marks]

Loftus - role of leading questions
Yuille & Cutshall (1986) - evidence from an actual crime
Anxiety (weapon focus) or age of witness
Flin et al (1992) - staged event & compared deterioration of children's and adult's memories over time
Karpel et al (2001) - showed a video of a robbery & compared information given by young adults with that given by older adults.

8

Describe Interference as an explanation for forgetting. [6 marks]

- Interference where two lots of information become confused in memory
- Proactive interference is where old learning affects recall of new information
- Retroactive interference is where new learning affects recall of old information
- Newer information may overwrite earlier information
- Interference occurs more when the two lots of information are similar
- Interference is less likely to occur when there is a gap between the instances of learning

9

Describe the Cognitive Interview. [6 marks]

- Reinstating the context - interviewee mentally reinstates the environmental and personal context of the incident
- Report everything - interviewer encourages the reporting of every single detail of the event, even though it may seem irrelevant
- Changing order - interviewer tries alternative ways through the timeline of the incident; (reduces possibility that recall may be influenced by schema/expectations)
- Changing perspective - interviewee recalls from different perspectives, e.g. how it would have appeared to other witnesses; (reduces influence of scheme)
Features of enhanced cognitive interview to facilitate recall - Focus on social interaction, reducing anxiety/distractions, slow speech, use of open-ended questions.